surgical technology pt1

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surgical technology pt1
2012-12-11 21:45:52

Fundamental knowledge
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  1. adnexa refers to 
    tissue or structure that are adjacent to or near another related structure. the ovaries and the uterine tubes are adnex to the uterus 
  2. a drop is denoted by the abbreviation 
    the abbriviation gt means a drop  derived from the latin word gutta.
  3. the abbreviation ung refers to 
    ung refers to ointment

  4. Proximal is a term that indicates a point 
    proximal means nearer to a point of referance or attachment. usuallyy the trunk of the body 
  5. Adduction means
    movement of a limb towards the axis of the body 
  6. Ischemic can be defined as
    A condition in which there is decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
  7. a cystocele is 
    a cystocele is herniation or protrusion of the urinary through the wall of the vagina. 
  8. Nulli is a prefix that means 
    Nulli means none. A woman who has never been pregnant is nulligravida. a woman who has not given birth to a viable infant is nullapara. the designation para 0 indicates nulliparity.
  9. false is indicated by the prefix
    the prefix pseudo means false as in pseudoarthrosis false joint 
  10. tiny red or purple spots on the skin appearing as a result of small hemorrhages within the dermal or submucosal layers
    Petechia are result of tiny hemorhages and they range from pinpoint t0 pinhead size and are flush with the skin surface 
  11. Kerato refers to 
    Kera, Kerat and kerato mean horn or cornea of the eye 
  12. the suffic Lysis means 
    Lysis means breaking down as in freeing adhesions from the tissue lysis of adhesions
  13. The left eye indicated by the following letters
    The letter OS mean left eye, oculus sinister.
  14. tissue death is called
    localized tissue death that occurs in groups of cells in response to disease or injury is necrosis
  15. The secretion of excessive sweat is also known as?
    diaphoresis is the secretion of sweat. especially the profuse secretions associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat and mental and emotional stress.
  16. Which radiographic procedure has the ability to make images to multiple planes?
    The MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, uses radio frequency radiation as its source of energy. it affords superior soft tissue contrast, has the ability to image in multiple planes, and lacks ionizing radiation hazards. the CT scan produces a detailed cross section of tissue structure.A PET (position emission tomography)scan examines the metabolic activities of verious body structures in color coded images. the ultrasound images deep structures by measuring the recorded sound wave.
  17. The absence of a normal body opening, duct. or canal is called
    Atresia is the absence of normal body opening, duct, or canal, such as the anus, vagina, external ear canal or biliary structure 
  18. Epistaxis can be defined 
    Epistaxis is bleeding from the nose caused by local irritation of mucous membranes, violent sneezing and a veriety of other reasons.
  19. Blood gas analysis is called 
    Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) assesses the oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood, measured by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and acid-base status
  20. A ganglion is a 
    A knot or knotlike mass; nerve cell bodies collected in groups
  21. tthe lungs are covered in a serious membranous sac called
    Each lung is enveloped in a sac of serous membrane called the pleura the chest cavity is lined with the parietal pleura. the lung covering is called the visceral pleura
  22. the passageway for foods and liquids into  the digestive system, and for air into the respiratory is the 
    The muscular Pharnyx it serves as a passageway for foodsand liquids into the digestive tract. it is also the path for air intothe respiratory system. the throat runs from the nares and runs partway down neck where it opens into the esophagus (posterior) and the larynx. (Anterior) (tortora an grabowski)
  23. The vocal cords are located in the?
    The vocal cords lie in the upperend of the lrnyx. they are responsible for voice production
  24. The function of the trachea is to
    The wind pipe, or trachea conductsair to and from the is  a tubular passageway located anterior to the esophagus . it  further divided into th esophagus
  25. the nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the septum 
    The nasal cavity is hallowed behjind the is devided into right and left portions by the sasal septum. the anterior septum is made of cartlage.t
  26. the bones of the palm of the hand are referred to as 
    The metracarpal muscles form the palm of the hand. there are five on each side 
  27. the muscles important in respiration are
    the intercostal muscles are inserted in the spaces between the ribs. these are particularly important in respiration. they srve to enlarge the the thoracic cavity upon inspiration.
  28. the thick , fan-shape muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the 
    the pectoralis majoris a thick, fan lishaped muscle located in the upper chest. its fibers extend from the center of the thorax through the armpits to the humerus 
  29. the triangular muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the 
    the deltoid is a thick triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint 
  30. which of the abdomonal muscle originates at the public bone aND ENDS in the ribs
    on the anterior portionof the abdominal wall, the rectus abdominid forms a strap like mass of muscle. it runs from the public bone at the floor of the abdominal cavity straight up to the abdominal cavity straight up to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the lower margins of the rib cage 
  31. one of the principal uscles of the pelvic floor is the 
    the pelvic floor or perineum, has is own form of diaphram, shaped somewhat like a shallow dish. one of the principal muscles of this pelvic diaphragm is the levator ani, whichwhich on the rectum and aidsin defecation 
  32. the gastrocnemius is the cheif muscle of the 
    the gastrocnemius is the cheif muscle of the calf of the leg. it is a large muscle on the sosterior part of the leg it extends the foot and helps to flex the knee upon the thigh
  33. a connective tissue band that holds bones together is called?
    a ligament is a band or sheet of strong fibrous tissue connecting the articular ends of bones. it serves to bind them together and facilitate or limit motion its a cord like structure.
  34. The two bones that form the side walls and the roof of the cranium are the 
    one parietal bone is located on each side of the skull just posterior to the frontal bone. they form the bulging sides and the roof of the cranium.
  35. the sternocleidomastoid muscle is located
    the sternocleidomastoid muscle extends along the side of the neck. it is sometimes reffered to as sternomastoid. it arisesfrom the sternum and inner part arises from the sternum and the inner part of the clavicle.
  36. the medial bones of the forarm, which is locatedon the small finger side of the hand is called
    the for arm is the ulna. it is on the same side as the little finger. on the proximal end is the olecranon process which forms the prominence of the elbow
  37. the bone that is shaped like a butturfly and forms the anterior portion of the base of the cranium is the 
    the sphenoid bone is a large wedgeshaped bone at the base of the lies between the occupital and ethmoid in the front. and between the parietal and themporal bones on the side.
  38. the bone that forms the posterior portion of the skull is the 
    the occipital bone forms the posterior part and a good portion of the base of the cranium. it is the bone in the lower part of the skull between the parietal and the temporal bones 
  39. the lower jawbone
    the mandible is the lower jawbone. it is the only movable bome in the skull it is horseshe shaped
  40. the bone located in the neck between the mandible and the larnynx, which supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles
    the hyoid bone is located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx. it supports the tongue and providesan attachment for its muscle it does not articulatewith any other bone 
  41. the adult vertebral column has 
    in an infant their are thirty three saperate bones in the vertebral column. five of these bones eventually fuse to form the sacrum and four other join to become the coccyx as a result an adult vertabra column has 26 parts
  42. how many cervival vertebrae are there?
    there are 7 cervical vertebra in the neck12 thoracic vertebra, 5 lumbar vertebra
  43. the bones in the axial skelection that does not articulate with any other bone is the 
    the single hyoid bone does not articulate with any other bone. it supports the tongue providing attachment sites for muscles of the tongue neck and pharynx
  44. the number of pair of ribs 
    12 pairs of ribs 
  45. a slender rodlike bone that is located at the base of the kneck runs horizontally is the 
    the clavicle are slender rodlike bones with elongated s shapes. they are located at the base of the neck and run horizontally between the sternum and the shoulders another name is collarbone
  46. the nucleas pulposus is the 
    each disk is composed of a tough outer layer of fibrocartilage (annulus fibrosus)and an elastic central mass (nucleus pulposus). this structure is soft and pulpy.
  47. the upper flaring portion of hipbone is the 
    the upper flaring portion or prominence of the hipbone is the ilium. its superior border is the iliac. the internal surface is the iliac fossa
  48. a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes is the 
    the foramen magnum is a large hole in the inferior part of the bone (occipital) through which the medulla oblongata and its memnranes, the accessory nerve XI, AND THE VERTEBRAL AND SPINAL ARTERIES PASS 
  49. the larger, weight - bearing bone of the lower leg is the 
    the tibia is the larger medial bone of the lower leg. it bears the major portion of the weight on the leg  anothername is shinbone.
  50. the bone that fits into the acetabulum, forming a joint is the 
    the head of the femur fits into a lateral depression in the os coxa ( the acetabulum), forming a joint . it is held in place in place by ligament and by a tough fibrous capsule surrounding  the joint 
  51. another name for the knee cap is
    the patella, or knee cap is a small triangular bone anterior to the knee joint. itis a lens shaped sesamoid bone situated in front of the knee in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
  52. the membranes that line closed cavities within the body are called
    there are two catagories of membranes: the epithelial and conective tissue. the epithelial is further divided into the mucous membrane which lines tubes and other spaces that open to the ouside of the body, and serious membrane, which lines closed cavities within the body
  53. the longets bone in the body is the 
    the longets bone in the body is the femur
  54. a rounded protuberance found at a point of articulated with another bone is called 
    a condyle is a rounded protuberance found at the point of articulation with another bone the distal end of the femur has a large condyles. thes condyles articulate with the tibia and the knee joint
  55. an infection of the bone is 
    osteomyelitis is an infection of bone caused by bacteria that may reach the bone from outside the body, from other sites of infection, and from adjacent structures
  56. the ends of long bones are called epiphysesthey have a somewhat bulbous shape, which provides roomy areas for muscle attachment and gives