ANSC 260

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Author:
mct
ID:
188277
Filename:
ANSC 260
Updated:
2012-12-09 21:17:07
Tags:
Energetics
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Description:
After midterm
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  1. Production goals
    • growth
    • reproduction
    • products (eggs, milk, wool)
    • performance
    • companionship
  2. For nutrients to be used for production
    maintenence requirements must be met first
  3. BMR
    • Basal Metabolic Rate
    • Fasting animal doing no work, producing no producs (vital organs only)
    • Service functions: heart, respiration, kidney, liver, nervous system, pH maintence, gluconeogensis (35-50%)
    • Cell maintenance: protein and lipid turnover, ion transport (40-60%)
    • Energy needed to sustain life
  4. HeE
    Heat of Basal Metabolic Rate
  5. FHP
    • Fasting Heat¬†Production
    • based on metabolic weight (not actual weight)
    • Surface area/unit mass plays large affect (short and stocky as opposed to tall and lean)
    • Animals are cylinders = pi*r2h
  6. 7 factors affecting FHP
    • 1. decreases with age
    • 2. Species differences
    • 3. Breed differences
    • 4. Sex differences
    • 5. Feeding and production level
    • 6. Weight of internal organs
    • 7. Differences among individuals
  7. HjE
    Heat of activity
  8. Hc
    Heat of thermal regulation
  9. Growth
    • Liveweight changes (sigmondial curve)
    • Nutrient requirements of young is the highest
    • As age and body weight inreases, fat desposition increases requiring more energy to gain 1 g.
  10. Mucle deposition efficeincy compared to fat
    • Muscle in 75% water, 20% protein
    • Fat deposition 1.4g replaces 0.4g water
    • Change in energy of 1 g of gain of fat is 11 times more energy than that for 1g added muscle
  11. Reproduction
    • Energy and CP intake affect sexual maturity
    • Flushing is increasing plane of nutrion before breeding to incease fertility (ruminants)
    • During pregnancy, balanced diet is important and varies between species.
    • Nutrient intake and demands are higher in last trimester
  12. Moderate deficiency and severe deficiency during pregnancy
    • In moderate deficiency, baby hs priority
    • In severe deficiency, mother takes priority
  13. Lactation
    • Nutrients change how nutrients are used
    • Heavy lactation is among the greatest severity of nutritional stress of any form of production
  14. Production effeciency
    • Units of production/units of feed
    • Simple for similar species, diets types, and products, complicated otherwise
  15. Efficiency in growing animals
    • early growth (primarily protein): 1g added tissue cost ~1.6Kcal
    • Fattening: 1g added tissue costs ~8.5Kcal
  16. Caloric efficiency (highest to lowest)
    • Maintenance
    • Milk production
    • Early postnatal growth
    • growth
    • Fattening
  17. Compensatory Growth def.
    Rapid efficeint weight gain following a period of restriction
  18. Compensatory Growth goals
    • Increased efficiency of gain,
    • achieve same body weight,
    • reduce pathology associated with rapid growh
  19. How Compensatory Growth works
    • Smaller body size
    • reduced basal metablic rate (per unit BW)
    • increased feed intake
  20. Compensatory Growth depends on
    • age/maturity of animal
    • severity of undernutrition
    • duration of undernutrition
    • sex of animal
    • type/compensation of re-feeding diet
  21. Compensatory growth accomplished by
    • Either limiting:
    • amount of feed
    • quality of feed
    • or duration of restriction

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