Nutrition Final Exam.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
zhanglin123
ID:
188304
Filename:
Nutrition Final Exam.txt
Updated:
2012-12-19 16:25:28
Tags:
nutrition final
Folders:

Description:
final
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user zhanglin123 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 6 nutrition conponents in food
    carbs, protein,fats, water,vitamins,minerals.
  2. only what nutrients provide kcal/ energy
    ony protein, fats, carbs.
  3. definition of Iatrogenic Malnutrition (医源性营养不良)
    a nutritional disease resulting from medical treament to patient with drugs surgery or dipudict diet.
  4. example of Iatrogenic malutrition(医源性营养不良)
    anticonvulsants 抗惊厥药(increase need for folic acid 叶酸)
  5. supplementations ≥ (大于等于)150% RDA 等于
    megadose. may be toxic
  6. all food turn to
    glucose   --    glycogen(糖原)   --  fat
  7. metabolism def.
    energy obtain from calories.      

    metabolizing fat, protein, carbs.

    energy intake( P. C. F)→  energy output (anabolism合成身体结构谢, catabolism分解消化代谢)
  8. steatorrhea ( fatty stools ) occurs when
    fatty acids are not absorbed
  9. major source of energy and fiber
    carbohydrate
  10. complex CHO ( polysaccharides )
    • primarily starch and cellulose (fiber)
    • found in breads, vegetables, and cereals(面包和蔬菜类)
  11. Lactose Intolerance(乳糖消化不良) caused & symptoms症状
    • a) causes: lactase insufficiency(乳糖酶功能不全).
    • b) symptoms: bloating, gaseousness, diahhrea, nausea, and abdominal pain after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  12. other terms for fiber
    cellulose, gums, pectins (纤维素, 树胶, 果胶).
  13. ideal fiber per day
    20 - 35 g fiber/ day
  14. too much fiber resulting
    • decreased nutrient absorption.  (6个)
    • ex. ≥35g fiber/ day
  15. food sources of fiber
    fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, wholegrains
  16. 2 types of fiber
    • insoluble fiber
    • soluble fiber
  17. insoluble fiber may lower the risk of
    calon cancer (结肠癌) and diverticulosis(憩室炎)
  18. soluble fiber may lower
    cholesterol level(胆固醇)
  19. goal fiber per day
    at least 3g/ 100 kcal from CHO food
  20. 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    1g Fiber→
    1g Alcohol→
    1g Fat→
    1g Protein→
    • 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→x4  =4kcal
    • 1g Fiber→ x0  = 0 kcal
    • 1g Alcohol→ x7  = 7 kcal
    • 1g Fat→ x9  = 9kcal
    • 1g Protein→x4  = 4kcal
  21. 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    6g Fiber→
    8g Alcohol→
    2g Fat→
    12g Protein→
    • 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→  20 kcal
    • 6g Fiber→  0 kcal
    • 8g Alcohol→  56 kcal
    • 2g Fat→ 18 kcal
    • 12g Protein→  48 kcal
  22. Consequences of Low CHO free diet
    lose sodium, potassium, and water which accounts for weight loss and weakness
  23. fat must be used as primary source of energy, which is (abnormal 异常) and create a build up of _______
    ketones/ketosis(酮症)

    • symptoms of ketosis
    • fatigue, dehydration, and loss of energy (疲劳,脱水,和的能量损失)
  24. characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (4个)
    • slow infant growth
    • small head/body
    • distorted facial features
    • mental retardation (low IQ)
  25. higher fat consumption increases the risk of Cancer by
    promoting cell division
  26. 2 major component of fats
    • 1) Glycerol:  common to all fats
    • 2) fatty acid: can be change
  27. fatty acids can divide to 3 catagories
    • saturated fats
    • monounsaturated fats
    • poly/unsaturated fats
  28. saturated fat increases the risk of
    heart disease
  29. examples of saturated fats
    animal fats (meat, dairy), tropical oil(coconut, palm), hydrogenated veg. oil (trans fat)
  30. meat
    saturated fat
  31. dairy cheese butter yogurt milk
    saturated fat
  32. best fat
    monounsaturated fat
  33. examples of monounsaturated fats
    olive oil, canola oil, nuts/nut oil (peanut oil)
  34. olive oil
    monounsaturated oil
  35. canola oil
    monounsaturated oil
  36. nuts oil
    monounsaturated oil
  37. poly/unsaturated fats
    increase the need of antioxidant
  38. examples of poly/unsaturated fats
    all other vegetable oil
  39. corn oil
    unsaturated oil
  40. cotton seed oil
    unsaturated oil
  41. examples of hydrogenation
    margin, store bought cookies, shortening, commercially prepared peanut butter
  42. brownie
    hydrogenation
  43. skippy jiff
    hydrogenation
  44. omega 3 fats
    lower risk of disease by decreasing inflammation
  45. examples of omega 3 fats
    salmon, flax, walnuts
  46. Olestra(蔗糖聚酯)
    Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved fat substitute(fake fat)
  47. physical properties of fat
    • insoluble in water
    • less dense than water
    • may burn in high temperatures
    • becomes rancid (spoiled馊掉或坏掉)
  48. Lipids
    • are transported in the blood as lipoproteins
    • HDLs and LDLs
    • chylomicrons
    • fat bound to protein
  49. functions of lipids (8个)
    • 1)source of energy
    • 2)high satiety value (make us feel full)
    • 3)carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A D E K)
    • 4)palatability (good taste)
    • 5)energy reserve
    • 6)precursor of prostaglandins前列腺素 (hormone-like substances)
    • 7)insulation (keep us warm)
    • 8)protection of vital body organs
  50. kcal?
    10 g CHO
    1 g fiber
    3 g alcohol
    8 g fat
    totoal =133 kcal
  51. Good quality of carbohydrate
    • high fiber
    • low sugar
  52. the remaining mass in the large intestine
    fiber and water
  53. Food Label  (见Lipid package 第3页)
  54. Complete protein
    animal protein from the milk and meat group
  55. Incomplete protein
    plant protein from vegetable and grain (starchy) group
  56. complementary proteins
    • peanut butter and bread
    • rice and beans
    • rice and vegetables, sprouts, salads
  57. functions of protein (5个)
    • 1) formation of essential body compounds (hormones, enzymes)
    • 2) regulation of water balance
    • 3) maintenance of body neutrality (pH)
    • 4) antibody formation
    • 5) transport nutrients
  58. Protein Calorie Malnutrition
    • Kwashiorkor(恶性营养不良)
    • Marasmus(消瘦)
  59. Kwashiorkor
    Protein defficiency only (蛋白缺失)
  60. Marasmus
    protein and calorie defficiency(白质和热量的缺失)
  61. at least 300 kcals fuels the brain for
    4 - 5 hrs
  62. why vitamin, minerals, water don't provide energy
    they don't have kcal
  63. symptoms of lactose intolerance
    • bloating
    • gaseousness
    • diahhrea
    • nausea
    • abdominal pain after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  64. tropical oil
    saturated fat
  65. palm oil
    saturated fat
  66. coconut oil
    saturated fat
  67. cholesterol free
    < 2 mg cholesterol per serving
  68. all information on the food label based on
    1 serving
  69. daily value
    percentage out of 100% RDI of a 2000 kcal diet
  70. advantages of being vegetarians
    • proper kcals
    • lower fat
    • lower saturated fat
    • higher monounsaturated fat
    • higher fiber
    • lower dietary cholesterol ( animal fat )
  71. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
  72. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams protein in this diet?
    20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

    400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
  73. major nutrients from Fruits and Vegetable group (3个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Fiber
  74. Meat / beans group have low in what (2个)
    low in Ascorbic Acid(抗坏血酸 也叫 vitamin C) and Calcium
  75. the body's need for energy for (3个)
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  76. convert lb. → kg
    lb. / 2.2 = ___kg

    ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 = 50 kg )
  77. convert 440lb to kg ?
    440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
  78. calculate BMR (基础代谢率)

    Male:
    Female:
    Male: 1 * ___kg * 24°

    Female : 0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  79. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg 才能算

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  80. factors affecting BMR (9个)
    • 1). genetic body composition
    • 2). body condition
    • 3). gender
    • 4). hormonal secretion
    • 5). sleep
    • 6). age
    • 7). body temprature
    • 8). nicotine from smoking
    • 9). fasting or crash diets
  81. the major gland (腺) affects BMR
    thyroid(甲状腺)------甲状腺的主要功能是合成甲状腺激素,调节机体代谢
  82. Hyperthyroidism(甲状腺功能亢进症)
    (↑↑↑)fast BMR, so ↑ food intake
  83. Hypothyroidism(甲状腺功能减退症)
    (↓↓↓) slow BMR, so ↓ food intake
  84. age group affect BMR
    infancy, childhood, puberty(青春期), pregnancy, lactation哺乳期 (↑ BMR)

    BMR Begins to ↓ at age 25
  85. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  86. The Thermic Effect of Food 可消化多少热量?( Hint:BMRActivity 有关 )
    10% (BMR + Activity)

    ex: 10% (1200 + 600 ) = 180 kcal

    Thermic Effect of Food 消耗最少的热量BMR 消耗最多的热量
  87. fat deposition influences health (2个体型)
    apple vs. pear shape (apple shape 比较危险, 因为大多数的器官都在上半身)
  88. cause of Obesity
    ↑ technology + ↑ junk food = ↑ obesity
  89. what are functions of water? (7个)
    • 1). Solvent of Nutrients (溶剂营养成分)
    • 2). Growth Facilitator (促进增长)
    • 3). Catalyst for many biological reactions (催化生物反应)
    • 4). Lubricant of Joints (润滑关节)
    • 5). Temperature Regulator (调节温度)
    • 6). Source of Trace Element (微量元素的来源)
    • 7). Need Water to make urine to excrete waste(需要水,使尿液排泄废物)
  90. Athlete's consumption of water and foodWater recommendation for Vigorous activity (猛烈运动)
    1 cup water / 15 mins
  91. Athlete's consumption of water and foodwhat to eat if become dehydrated? (3个)
    • salty food
    • water
    • fruits
  92. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG(味精)
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  93. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water leaving from the blood and entering the cell (avoiding edema 水肿)
  94. Functions of Potassium
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *maintain water balance
    • *maintain osmotic pressure
  95. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • Na & K ratio
    • decrease in Na increase in K
  96. Na & K both maintain
    • maintain water balance
    • maintain osmotic pressure (渗透压 ) U 形排水管
  97. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  98. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = brown motting on teeth 褐色斑点
  99. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  100. food source of Chloride (Cl)
    Salt (NaCl)
  101. Functions of Chloride (Cl)
    in the stomach as part of digestive juices (HCL)
  102. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  103. Calcium provides rigidity in our ________ ( 让什么个坚硬)
    bones and teeth
  104. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus,
    • flourine,
    • magnesium,
    • calciumtooth formationgrowthblood clotting (血液凝固)
    • catalyst for biological reaction
  105. 4 mineral invovled Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  106. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass(消化系统质量酸度)
    • lactose
  107. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin excess stomach acid
  108. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones healthplication
  109. Food Sources of Ca (6个)
    • diary (milk, yogurt, cheese)
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kale
  110. Milk is high in __ low in __ & ____
    high in Ca low in Fe & Vitamin C
  111. cause of Osteoporosis (骨质疏松) (3个)
    • long standing dietary inadequacy
    • poor utilization or absorption
    • excrete (排泄) more Ca (Alcohol cause more Ca excretion)
  112. Osteomalacia known as adult _____, and low level of _____
    adult ricket (佝偻病)

    Vitamin D
  113. where we can find Phosphorus (P)?
    coke, 7up, roast beef, and milk
  114. Magnesium is absorbed on the bone surface (the 4 minerals involved in bone formation are ______________)
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Magnesium
  115. Sources of Magnesium
    fish, nuts, soybeans, and spinach
  116. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  117. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur which decrease_____________
    which decrease risk of cancer
  118. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  119. Function of Iron (Fe)
    • Blood Formation
    • (Fe is part of hemoglobin 血红蛋白 which is part of the Red Blood Cell which is invloved in blood formation)
  120. Heme Iron can be found in
    Red meat
  121. Meat is the most biologically available food source of
    Iron
  122. enriched bread is a source of
    Iron (non-heme iron)
  123. milk is a poor souce of
    Fe and Vitamin C
  124. Factors affecting Iron Absorption
    Body's need for iron (large dose with ↓ need = ↓ absorption)
  125. Caffeine ( from coffee, tea, cola ) ↓ ________?
    • decreases Fe absorption
    • consume no more than 24 total ounces per day
  126. The meal with most iron absorption
    red meat, sources of vitamin C, no caffeine

    Sources of Vitamin C (starwberries and peppers)
  127. Woman in child bearing years have ↑______ so they are at ↑ risk of ________ ( _______ )?
    have ↑ Fe needs so they are at an increased risk of Fe deficient ( Anemia )
  128. Fe deficient is _____ ?
    Anemia (贫血)
  129. Iron deficiency may result from
    • decreased Fe in the diet
    • blood loss
    • decreased absorption
  130. Symptoms of Anemia(Iron Deficiency)
    • ↓ red blood cells (红血球)
    • fatigue (疲劳)
    • apathy (暮气--散漫)
  131. the iodization of NaCl (salt) has ↓
    the incidence of goiter (癭病-- 甲状腺肥大)
  132. Iodine Deficiency is what kind of disease
    Goiter
  133. Goiter (瘿病)
    swelling (肿胀) of the neck as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland (甲状腺肥大)
  134. decreased iodine can cause
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  135. ↓ Zinc = ↓ ________
    taste acuity 味觉敏锐(hypogeusia)味觉衰退
  136. Function of Zinc
    • reproduction 生殖
    • affects taste 影响味道
    • wound healing伤口愈合
    • growth 生长
    • zinc acts in metallogenzymes 作为金属酶
  137. Food Sources of Zinc 锌
    meat, seafood, and whole grains
  138. Function of Selenium 硒
    • functions as antioxidant along with
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta carotene
  139. 4 antioxidants? 是
    Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and beta carotene
  140. Function of Boron 硼
    prevents bone loss in post menopausal women 防止绝经后妇女的骨质流失
  141. Functions of Vitamin C
    • Collagen formation 胶原蛋白的形成
    • ↓ Cancer and Common Cold 抗癌症和缓解感冒
    • ↓Formation of Nitrosamines减少亚硝胺的形成
    • Facilitates the mineral (Fe) 促进矿物质(铁)
    • Antioxidant 抗氧化
  142. Collagen
    • a cement 水泥 like protein substance that binds cells together
    • part of connective tissue 结缔组织
  143. Vitamin C facilitates the mineral, ______, to be absorbed ?
    Iron
  144. Vitamin C may alleviate the perceived severity of the symtoms of a cold
  145. Vitamin C helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines亚硝胺
    nitrosamines - cancer causing agents found in cured meats 腊肉
  146. Cured meats (source of nitrosamines) 8 个
    Bacon, Ham, Hotdog, Polony, Pepperoni, Sausage, Scrapple, Salami
  147. Food Source of Vitamin C
    • Cabbage family vegetables (broccoli)
    • Cantaloupe
    • Citrus 柑橘
    • Kale 羽衣甘蓝
    • Peppers
    • Potatoes
    • Strawberries
    • Tomatoes
  148. Best Source of Ascorbic Acid (抗坏血酸) & Beta Carotene (β-胡萝卜素)
    Fruit & Vegetables
  149. Deficiency of Vitamin C is called _________ disease
    Scurvy (坏血病)
  150. Symtoms of Scurvy (坏血病)
    • Swollen Gums 牙龈红肿
    • Bruise easily 容易挫伤, 青肿
    • Reopening of old wounds (not enough collagen) 重开旧的伤痛(没有足够的胶原蛋白)
  151. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin) 叶酸
    • 1. prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia (大细胞性贫血) normal nerve functioning. cells are immature (细胞是未成熟的)
    • 2. involved in blood formation
  152. Blood Formation (4个)
    • Folate         (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  153. Folate need ↑ when _________ ↑(during_____ & ______)
    • Blood volume ↑
    • during pregnancy & lactation
  154. Women in child bearing (生育) years need folate to
    prevent the childhood birth defect, spina bifida (脊柱裂)
  155. 1998, FDA mandates folate to be added to ______ products to ↓ the incidence of ____
    all grain products to decrease the incidence of spina bifida
  156. Food Sources of Folate
    • Concentrated Sources: source of Vitamin B (wheat germ小麦胚芽, liver肝, kidney肾, yeast酵母, and mushrooms蘑菇)
    • Significant Sources: Fruits and Vegetables
  157. Functions of Cobalamin (B12)
    • 1.) prevents and treats pernicious anemia (恶性贫血) without normal nerve functioning. cells are large and immature (细胞是未成熟的)
    • 2) involved in blood formation with B6, Vitc, Floate, and B12
  158. 4 Vitamins involved in blood formation ?
    • Folate       (叶酸)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  159. Food Sources of B12
    animal origin, with meat bing the best sourceroast beef, chicken, steak, turkey
  160. Strict vegetarians (vegan) must supplement with
    B12
  161. what 3 Vitamins are toxic when consumed in large amounts (3个)
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  162. Functions of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    primarily in protein metabolism (involved in transamination and deamination)
  163. Fat Soluble Vitamins (4个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K

    (ADEK)
  164. Fat Soluble Vitamins are affected by
    impaired fat digestion 脂肪消化受损bile 胆汁
  165. Precursor (前兆) of Vitamin A
    Carotene (Yellow plant pigment) 胡萝卜素(黄色植物的色素)
  166. Functions of Vitamin A
    Vision - allows vision to dim light昏暗的灯光下 (Prevent Xeropthelmia - night-blindness 夜盲症)
  167. Carotene 胡萝卜素 stored in the
    Fat Tissue 脂肪组织 & Adrenal Glands 肾上腺

    maybe responsible for the yellowish tinge to the skin when grearter amounts are consumed and accessed or stored
  168. Carotenoids are phytochemicals (植物化学物质) which ↓
    ↓ the risk of heart desease and cancers
  169. Deeper yellow, orange and green = ↑
    Vitamin A and Carotene
  170. Q: which has more Vitamin A?
    1. Corn vs. Sweet Potato
    2. Iceberg lettuce vs. Romaine lettuce
    • 1. Sweet Potato
    • 2. Romaine lettuce
  171. Deficiency of Vitamin A causes
    • changes in the skin
    • Form of Dermatitis = Folliculitis 毛囊炎
    • changes in the eyes (cornea) 角膜
    • night blindness
  172. Examples of Deeper yellow, orange and green (↑ Vit A & Carotene)
    • romaine lettuce
    • sweet potatoes
    • carrot
    • pumpkin
    • tomatoes
    • cantolope
    • papaya
    • mango
    • peach
  173. example of Bio-technology (bio-engineer food and genetic modified food)
    Golden rice
  174. Vitamin A would be toxic if consume too much
  175. precursor in the _________ is converted by ________ to make Vitamin D
    Skin               UV Rays 
  176. Vitamin D also known as the ______________
    Sunshine Vitamin
  177. Elderly are at an ↑ risk of Vitamin D deficiency due to ___________ & __________ (2个原因)
    • ↓ exposure to the sun
    • ↓ milk intake
  178. children who fail to have a good ____________ = rickckets
    calcium / phosphrous ration in bone
  179. Adult Rickets is called ___________ ?
    Ostomalacia (软骨病)
  180. Calcium requirement for 19-24 year olds:
    1300 mg
  181. Vitamin E neutralizes free radicals preventing them (自由基) to increase cellular damage (细胞损伤)
  182. free radicals are formed by (4个)
    • 1. Breathing
    • 2. Pollution
    • 3. Somking
    • 4. UV exposure
  183. Vitamin E as antioxidant to protects oxidation of ___________ which decreases underarm odor (腋臭)
    Fatty Acid
  184. Food Sources of Vitamin E
    Vegetable Oils & Soybean Oils
  185. Deficiencies of Vitamin E shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malabsorption (Cystic Fibrosis) 囊性纤维化
  186. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  187. Newborns don't have the bacteria that synthesizes Vit K so___________
    supplement K are recommended
  188. lifter need to take?what supplement  protein?
  189. pork
    coaco butter
    olive oil
    magnine

    highest colories
  190. protein requirement
  191. FDA recommend to take less          can improve health

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview