Ch. 19.txt

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Ch. 19.txt
2012-12-09 23:18:07
Napoleon 19

The Age of Napoleon
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  1. Concordat of 1801
    The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.
  2. Confederation of the Rhine
    The Confederation of the Rhine was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria's Francis II and Russia's Alexander I in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813.
  3. Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
  4. Continental System
    The Continental System or Continental Blockade was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on the 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on the 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade. This embargo ended on April 11, 1814 after Napoleon's first abdication.
  5. Elba
    The Isle of Elba was pace of Napoleon's first exile.
  6. Grand Duchy of Warsaw
    The Duchy of Warsaw was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna.
  7. Holy Alliance
    The Holy Alliance was a coalition formed by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia.
  8. Hundred Days
    The Hundred Days, sometimes known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days for specificity, marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 111 days). This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign.
  9. Invasion of Egypt
    • 1798-1801
    • Location Egypt, Levant
    • Result
    • French conquest of Egypt ends Mameluke rule
    • French expedition to Syria fails to establish hegemony in the Orient
    • French fleet destroyed by British
  10. Invasion of Russia
    • Date
    • 24 June – 14 December 1812

    • Location
    • Russian Empire

    • Result
    • Decisive Russian victory[1]
    • Destruction of French Allied Army
    • Start of the War of the Sixth Coalition
  11. Junkers
    Junker is derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young lord" (derivation of jung and Herr), and originally was the title of members of the higher edelfrei (immediate) nobility without or before the accolade. It evolved to a general denotation of a young or lesser noble, often poor and politically insignificant, understood as "country squire". As part of the nobility, many Junker families only had prepositions such as von or zu before their family names without further ranks. The abbreviation of Junker was Jkr., most often placed before the given name and titles, for example: Jkr. Heinrich von Hohenberg. The female equivalent Junkfrau (Jkfr.) was used only sporadically. In some cases, the honorific Jkr. was also used for Freiherren (Barons) and Grafen (Counts).
  12. Liberalism
    Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on the idea of liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and a right to life, liberty, and property.
  13. Prince Klemens Von Metternich
    Prince Klemens Von Metternich was possibly the most influential man at the Congress of Vienna.

    Prince of Metternich

    1st State Chancellor of the Austrian Empire

    • In office
    • 25 May 1821 – 13 March 1848

    • Monarch
    • Francis I (1821–1835)
    • Ferdinand I (1835–1848)

    2nd Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire

    • In office
    • 8 October 1809 – 13 March 1848

    • Monarch
    • Francis I (1809–1835)
    • Ferdinand I (1835–1848)

    Personal details

    Born 15 May 1773

    • Died 11 June 1859 (aged 86)
    • Vienna, Austria

    • Nationality
    • German Austrian

    • Spouse(s)
    • Princess Eleonore von Kaunitz (m. 1795–1825)
    • Baroness Antoinette Leykam (m. 1827–1829)
    • Countess Melanie Zichy-Ferraris (m. 1831–1854)

    • Children
    • With Eleonore:
    • 4 daughters, three sons

    • With Antoinette:
    • A son, Richard Klemens Josef Lothar Hermann (1829–1895)

    • With Melanie:
    • Melanie Metternich-Zichy, three sons

    • With Katharina:
    • (illegitimate, acknowledged): A daughter, Marie-Klementine Bagration (1802–1884)

    Religion Catholic
  14. Milan Decree
    The Milan Decree was issued on December 17, 1807 by Napoleon I of France to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806 which had initiated the Continental System. This system was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. The Milan Decree stated that no European country was to trade with Great Britain.
  15. Napoleonic Code
    The Napoleonic Code is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified.
  16. Nationalism
    patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation
  17. Rosetta Stone
    Discovered by Napolean's scientists during his Egyptian Campaign, this stone helped decode heiroglyphics.
  18. Quadruple Alliance
    The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It renewed the alliance first agreed to in 1813 and it modified the aims of the alliance from defeating Napoleon Bonaparte to upholding the settlement following the Napoleonic Wars: with France's admission in 1818, it became the Quintuple Alliance, though British government distaste for the other allies' reactionary policies meant that it lapsed into ineffectiveness after the mid-1820s.
  19. St. Helena
    The place of Napoleon's 2nd and last exile.
  20. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
    He worked successfully from the regime of Louis XVI, through the French Revolution and then under Napoleon I, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis-Philippe. Some regard him as one of the most versatile, skilled and influential diplomats in European history, and some believe that he was a traitor, betraying in turn, the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Restoration. He is also notorious for leaving the Catholic Church after ordination to the priesthood and consecration to the episcopacy.

    • Prime Minister of France
    • 9 July 1815 – 26 September 1815

    Personal details

    • Born
    • 2 February 1754 Paris, France

    • Died
    • 17 May 1838 (aged 84)Paris, France

    • Nationality
    • FrenchResidenceValençay, France

    • Religion
    • Roman Catholic