The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
The processing of information into the memory system-forexample, by extracting meaning.
The retention of encoded information over time.
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Serial position effect
The encoding of picture images.
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Memory aids, especially those techinques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
The loss of memory.
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative or procedural memory.)
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare". (Also called declarative memory).
A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously leanred, as on a mulitple-choice test.
A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
In psychoanalytic tehory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing throughts, feelings, and memories.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) This, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.