Psych 216 - Chapter 17 18 19

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jason.brooks
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Psych 216 - Chapter 17 18 19
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2012-12-21 11:30:26
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Psych 216 - Chapter 17 18 19
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  1. Functional age
    A combination of the chronologic, physiologic, mental, and emotional ages.
  2. Average life expectancy
    The number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age
  3. Average healthy life expectancy
    The number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health, without diseases or injury
  4. Macular degeneration
    When light sensitive cells break down in older adults and central vision blurs and gradually is lost.
  5. Basic self-care tasks requiring one to live on one's own, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed or eating
    Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
  6. Task of cognitive competence, such as telephoning, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping and paying bills.
    Instrumental activities of Daily Living (IADL)
  7. The immune system is more likely to malfunction by turning against normal body tissues
    Autoimmune Response
  8. A condition in which breathing ceases for 10 seconds or longer, resulting in many brief awakenings.
    Sleep apnea
  9. How many hours of sleep do old people need?
    About 7 hours; as much as young people.
  10. Severe impairment or loss of intellectual capacity and personality integration,due to the loss of or damage to neurons in the brain
    Dementia
  11. Disorientation
    Unaware of who you are: person, where you are; place and when it is time
  12. The most common form of dementia in which structural and chemical brain detereoration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior
    Alzheimer's disease
  13. A series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells, producing step-by-step degeneration of mental ability, which each step occuring abruptly after a stroke
    Cerebrovascular Dementia
  14. What are the 3 types of memory
    • 1. Memory recognition- Automatic
    • 2. Cue recall - Hint
    • 3. Free recall - Explicit. Reduces the most with age
  15. Associative memory deficit
    Difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information.
  16. Selective optimization with compensation
    Narrowing their goals, they select personally valued activities to optimize (maximize) returns from their diminishing energy.
  17. Wisdom
    A range of experiences that enhance expertise in the conduct and meaning of life
  18. Ego integrity vs. Despair
    A feeling of whole, complete, satisfaction with your acheivements versus failure
  19. A term used for those who invested alot of time and energy into their career and once they are retired, are trying to affirm thier self-worth through, friends, family and communtiy
    Ego differentiation
  20. Acknowledging physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional and social capabilities
    Body transcendence
  21. A cosmic and transcendent perspective directed forward and outward, beyond the self
    Gerotranscendence
  22. Affect optimization
    The ability to maximize positve emotion and minimize negative emotion
  23. Telling stories about people and events from their past and reporting associated thoughts and feeling
    Reminiscence
  24. Dependency-support script
    Dependent behavoirs are attended to immidiately
  25. Independence ignore script
    Independent behaviors are mostly ignored
  26. Activity Theory
    When the elderly lose their common roles and try to find other roles to stay active
  27. Continuous Theory
    A theory in which most elders strive to continue their significance by finding interest and roles that promote self satisfacion by engaging if familiar acts and socializing with familiar people
  28. Socioemotional selective theory
    Selecting friends and associates that have the potential to be life long friends
  29. Ego transcendence
    Acknowleging that death is emminent and making efforts to have a more secure meaningful life by gratifying to the younger generation
  30. Why do most elderly individuals live in cities?
    They have more access to transporatation, clinics, and social services
  31. What are some advantages for an elderly person living in a small town?
    • 1. People are more friendly
    • 2. Less crime
    • 3. Share common interst/beleifs and the elederly tend to 4. Closer relationships
  32. Aging in place
    Remaining in a familiar setting in which they have control over their everyday life
  33. What are some disadvantages to "Aging in place"?
    Poverty stricken and loss of independent skills
  34. Why is it so hard to live in a nursing home?
    • Loss of idependence and freedom
    • Loss of privacy
  35. A long term care option that provides support services, including meals and monitoring resdients with physical and mental diability
    Congregate Housing
  36. A range of alternative housing from independent housing, congregate housing and full nursing home care. Usually involves a fee
    Life-care communities
  37. A cluster of family members and friends that provide support as we move through life
    Social convoy
  38. What factors into a good long term marriage?
    • Shared leisure activities 
    • Increase in positive communication
  39. Who retires early vs late and why?
    Women retire earlier than men due to family responsibilities
  40. Optimal aging
    The ability to minimize loss and maximize gains in social services and avialable resources
  41. Where do most people die?
    In the hospital
  42. What are the 3 phases of death?
    • 1. Agonal death - regular hearbeat disintegrates
    • 2. Clinical death - a short interval in which resuscitation is still possible
    • 3. Mortality - permanent death
  43. Brain death
    Accepted definition of death - death of the brain
  44. Persistent vegitative state
    A disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
  45. What is the thinking process of death from early adulthood to late adulthood
    • Early adulthood - many avoid thinking about death
    • Middle aduthood - begin to become aware that life will eventually end
    • Late adulthood - pondering more about the process of dying rather than death itself
  46. Death anxiety
    Less fear of death due to religious and social factors
  47. Appropriate death
    The "good" death. Coming to terms that the end may be near and making the necessary arrangements to be as comfortable as possible
  48. Meeting a dying persons phsyical, social, emotional and spiritual needs
    Hospice care
  49. Comfort care focused on protecting the quality of life rather than prolonging life
    Palliative care
  50. Living will
    A living will containing instructions for treatment
  51. Advanced directives
    Instructions for treatment in the absence of consciousness
  52. Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from a hopelessly ill patient
    Passive euthanasia
  53. Euthanasia
    Ending the life ot a person suffering from an incurable condition
  54. Physcian assisted suicide
    Doctors comply with a suffering patient's request to end their natural life
  55. Bereavment
    The experience of losing a loved one by death
  56. The intense physical and psycholigical distress that accompanies loss
    Grief
  57. Culturally prescribed expressions of thoughs and feelings designed to help people work through their grief
    Mourning
  58. A prolonged expected death
    Anticipatory grieving
  59. Erikson stages from adolescece through old age
    o    5. Identity vs Identity Confusion (12-20)

    o    6. Intamacy vs Isolation (21 - 39)

    o    7. Generativity vs Stagnation (40 - 59)

    o    8. Integrity vs Despair (60>)
  60. Implicit memory
    Memory without conscious awareness. Automatic recall.
  61. Recognition
    Noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to the one previously expereinced
  62. Recall
    More challenging that recogniton because it involves remembering something not present
  63. Remembering to engage in planned actions in the future
    Prospective memory

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