Biology 104

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morarl03
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188328
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Biology 104
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2012-12-10 00:47:03
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Accumlative Final Cards
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  1. A hypothesis is ________ based on _________.
    A. An observation/ experimentation 
    B. A question/ guessing
    C. A final answer/ Current theories 
    D. An educated guess/ previous experience and knowledge
    D. An educated guess/ Previous experience and knowledge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Science can be used to evaluate and interpret situations involving
    A. Events outside the natural world
    B. Value/ ethical questions
    C. Observable events in the natural world
    D. All of the above can be evaluated scientifically
    C. Observable events in the natural world
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A theory is formed
    A. Before a hypothesis is formed
    B. As an early step in the scientific method, after which experiments are performed
    C. Immediately after an observation 
    D. To test a hypothesis 
    E. After a large number of observations and experiements 
    E. After a large number of observations and experiments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following statement is a scientific hypothesis?

    A. Eating less fat will reduce the risk of cancer
    B. Stem cell research is immoral
    C. What are stars made of?
    D. Bad spirits are responsible for spreading influenza 
    A. Eating less fat will reduce the risk of cancer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Information found in primary sources of scientific information 
    A. Contain information reviewed by other scientist before publication 
    B. Can be assumed to be well designed and free of bias
    C. both C and D are correct
    D. Contain original research results
    E. May be found in your local newspaper 
    C. Both C and D are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. If an atom has an atomic number of 12, it is possible to predict that it has ____ electrons in its outer electron shell. 
    A. 6
    B. 8
    C. 10
    D. 12
    E. 2
    E. 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Am atom is said to be electrically neutral when it has equal numbers of ____ and _____.
    A. Nuclei and Bonds
    B. Electrons and Protons
    C. Protons and Neutrons
    D. Electrons and Neutrons
    B. Electrons and Protons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  8. What does this graph tell us about the relationship between stress and having colds?
    A. Having a cold causes higher stress
    B. Increased stress causes colds
    C. there is a positive correlation between high stress levels and having a cold 
    D. There is a negative correlation between high stress levels and having a cold
    C. There is a positive correlation between high stress levels and having a cold 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  9. Which of the followig is the independent or experimental varible in the above graph?
    A. Correlation 
    B. percent of subjects with colds
    C. Psychological stress
    D. There is no independent variable in this graph
    C. Psychological stress
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Atoms share electrons 
    A. To achieve a stable outermost shell
    B. In ionic bonds
    C. In hydrogen bonds
    D. All of the above are correct 
    A. To achieve a stable outermost shell 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  11. Referring to the image, Which bonds are stronger 
    A. 2
    B. All are the same strength 
    C. 1 & 3
    C. 1 &3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  12. Referring to the image, What type of Bond is #3?
    A. ionic bond
    B. covalent bond
    C. hydrogen bond
    D. peptide bond
    B. Covalent bond
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. An element has an atomic number of 5, and an atomic mass of 11. 
    How many protons does an atom of this element have?
    A. 5
    B. 11
    C. 6
    D. 16
    A. 5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. An element has an atomic number of 5, and an atomic mass of 11
    How many neutrons does an atom of this element have?
    A. 16
    B. 11
    C. 5
    D. 6
    D. 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. A basic solution, 
    A. Has more H+ ( Hydrogen) ions than OH- (Hydroxide) ions
    B. Has more OH- ions than H+ ions
    C. Has an equal number of H+ and OH- ions
    B. Has more OH- ions than H+ ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Non-Polar molecules tend to be
    A. Electrically charged
    B. Acidic 
    C. Hydrophilic
    D. Hydrophobic 
    E. Both C and D are correct
    D. Hydrophobic 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following is a nucleic acids?
    A. Glycogen
    D. Amino acid
    C. Steroid
    D. ATP
    D. ATP
  18. A polypeptide may be made up of over 300 linked
    A. Amino acids
    B. Glucose molecules
    C. nucleic acids
    D. fatty acids
    A. Amino Acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Steroids are 
    A.Made up of 4 interlocking carbon rings
    B. all choices are correct 
    C. Non- Polar
    D. Lipids
    B. all choices are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The R group of side chain of the amino acid Tyrosine is hydrophobic. The R group or side chain of the amino acid Glutamine is hydrophilic. where would you expect to find these amino acids in three-dimensional protein in a water solution such as inside the cell?
    A. glutamine would be in the interior, and tyrosine would be on the exterior of the globular protein 
    B. both amino acids would be on the exterior or the globular protein 
    C. Tyrosine would be in the interior, and glutamine would be on the exterior of the globular protein 
    D. Both amino acids would be in the interior of the globular protien 
    C. Tyrosine would be in the interior, and gluatmine would be on the exterior of the globular protein 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. _________ are made up of a glycerol group attached to 3 long hydrocarbon chains. 
    A. Proteins
    B. Fats and oils
    C. Polypeptides
    D. Starches
    E. Steroids
    B. Fats and oils 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Trans fats are related to what chemical process?
    A. Hydrogenation
    B. Hybridization 
    C. Polymerization 
    D. Dehydration synthesis 
    E. Denaturation 
    A. Hydrogenation 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. We talked about "Essential" amino acids and fatty acids. What does it mean that these are "Essential"
    A. They are used by nearly every chemical reaction in the body 
    B. Our bodies are not able to build them; they must come from what we eat
    C. They are the healthiest forms of these molecules 
    D. They are specialized for buidling parts of the brain 
    B. Our bodies are not able to build them; they must come from what we eat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Diffusion occurs
    A. Due to random molecular motion 
    B. Only within living cells
    C. From high to low concentration
    D. Both C and D are correct
    E. Only when energy is applied
    B. Only within living cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which of the following would be most likely to use facilitated diffusion to enter a cell?
    A. Carbon dioxide
    B. Oxygen 
    C. A protein 
    D. A small hydrophobic molecule 
    C. A Protein 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  26. The image at right shows what process?
    A. Exocytosis 
    B. Endocytosis
    C. Osmosis
    D. Diffusion
    E. Active Transport
    B. Endocytosis 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  27. In the image the diagram shows a solute in water. The dashed line is a membrane permeable only to water. 
    This diagram shows what process taking place?
    A. osmosis
    B. protein pump
    C. both A and B are correct
    D. endocytosis
    E. active transport 
    A. Osmosis 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  28. In setup 1 which side of the tube has the higher concentration of water?
    A. left
    B. right
    C. they are the same 
    A. left
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. In which cell would you expect to find the most mitochondria?
    A. macrophage that engulfs bacteria 
    B.epithelial cells lining the digestive tract
    C. muscle cell in the thigh muscle of a long-distance runner
    D. ovarian cell that produces estrogen (a sterioid hormone)
    C. Muscle cell in the thigh muscle of a long-distance runner
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What is the charge of an Electron and where is it located in the atom. 
    Negative and outside rings
  31. What is the charge of a Neutron and where is it located in the atom. 
    Neutral and inside the atom
  32. What is the charge of a Proton and where is it located in the atom. 
    Positive and inside the atom 

  33. The middle cell in this image is in a ___ solution.
    A. Isotonic
    B. Hypertonic
    C. Hypotonic 
    C. Hypotonic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following is an example of active transport across the plasma membrane. 
    A. molecules moving through a protein with the concentration gradient.
    B. a small molecule moving directly through the phospholipid bilayer
    C. phospholipids linking their fatty acid tails to form a channel for lipids to pass
    D. a substance being pumped to an area of higher concentration.
    D. a substance being pumped to an area of higher concentration 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?
    A. glucose
    B. fat
    C. H+
    D. NADH
    E. ATP
    E. ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  36. The diagram best represents
    A. fermentation 
    B. an enzymatic reaction 
    C. aerobic cellualr respiration 
    D. transcription
    B. an enzymatic reaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  37. In the diagram, structure A is the 
    A. product
    B. enzyme
    C. substrate
    D. glucose
    E. nucleotide
    B. enzyme
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  38. In the diagram, structure B is the 
    A. ATP
    B. enzyme
    C. product
    D. substrate 
    E. oxygen
    D. Substrate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Metabolism is defined as
    A. processes that convert complex compounds into simpler compounds
    B. all chemical processes that occur within the cell 
    C. the rate of oxygen used by cells
    D. the breaking down of food into smaller molecules
    E. the rate at which cells release heat
    B. all chemical processes that occur within cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which subpathway releases most of the energy during aerobic cellular respiration?
    A. citric acid cycle
    B. electron transport chain
    C. fermentation 
    D. glycolysis 
    B. electron transport chain 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. enzymes are
    A. lipids
    B. nucleic acids
    C. proteins 
    D. carbohydrates
    C. proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which molecule acts as an electron carrier during cellular respiration 
    A. ATP
    B. oxygen 
    C. carbon dioxide
    D. NAD+
    D. NAD+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following is not directly involved in the process of translation 
    A. enzymes
    B. ribosome
    C. mRNA
    D. tRNA
    E. DNA
    E. DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The process of fermentation occurs when there is no ___ and results in the conversion of pyruvic acid into ____.
    A. carbon dioxide, water
    B. oxygen, water
    C. oxygen; lactid acid
    D. carbond dioxide, lactic acid 
    E. glucose, oxygen
    C. oxygen, lactic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. RNA is formed in the process of 
    A. phosphorylation 
    B. fermentation 
    C. transcription 
    D. translation
    E. replication 
    C. transcription 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. which of the following is true about transfer RNA
    A. tRNA acts as an enxymes to form covalent bonds between RNA nucleotides
    B. tRNA molecules carry free nucleotides to form the new mRNA strand during transcription 
    C. tRNA carries amino acids to the mRNA strand during translation 
    D. tRNA provides energy for cellular processes
    C. tRNA carries amino acids to the mRNA strands during translation 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The process of gene expression i all living organisms can be summarized as 
    A. protein -->DNA --> RNA
    B. RNA --> DNA --> Protein 
    C. DNA --> RNA --> Protein 
    D. Protein --> RNA --> DNA 
    C. DNA -->RNA--> Protein 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Mutations 
    A. both C and D are correct
    B. always result in improvement of the organism 
    C. always result in damage to the organism 
    D. can be caused by additions, deletions, or replacements of DNA nucleotide bases
    E. are the raw material for evoltution 
    A. both C and D are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The tissue supports and holds organs in place 
    A. dense fibrous CT
    B. carilage
    C. loose fibrous CT
    D. smooth muscle 
    C. loose fibrous CT
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. ______ tissue makes up the inner lining of the stomach 
    A. epithelial 
    B. nervous
    C. muscle 
    D. connective
    A. epithelial 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Where would you find smooth muscle
    A. in the walls of the blood vessels 
    B. in the heart
    C. connecting the bones such as the ribs to the sternum
    D. attached to the bones
    e. smooth muscle is found in all of the above locations
    A. in the walls of the blood vessels 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. sweat is secreted through a duct, this means it is secreted by an 
    A. endocrine gland
    B. adipose gland
    C. hormonal gland
    D. exocrine gland
    D. exocrine gland 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. this tissue is found at the ends of bones, the outer ear, and between the vertebrae
    A. loose CT
    B. dense regular CT
    C. smooth muscle 
    D. cartilage
    D. cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. the dorsal cavity contains
    A. the heart and lungs
    B. the stomach and other digestive organs
    C. the brain and spinal cord
    d. all of the above
    C. the brain and spinal cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. ____ contain enzymes to break down macromolecules
    lysosomes
  56. ______ site of protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  57. packaging, storage, distribution of protein 
    golgi apparatus
  58. membranous sac used for material transport 
    vesicle 
  59. system of tubular canals for molecular transport 
    endoplasmic reticulum 
  60. powerhouse of the cell
    mitochondrion 
  61. Substances move through the digestive tract by what process
    A. skeletal muscle action 
    B. the action of cilia 
    C. smooth muscle action 
    D. gravity 
    D. graity 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. The primary function of the stomach is to 
    A. provide HCL that is used by the small intestines
    B. add moisture and enxymes to food 
    C. break down and completely absorb food
    D. store and digest food
    D. store and digest food
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. what is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion 
    A. produces bile
    B. procudes substances that aid the large intestine in waster absorption 
    C. secretes digestive enzymes 
    D. produces a basic solution to neutralize stomach acidity 
    A. produces bile
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. what is absorbed mainly through the 
    A. ESOPHAGUS
    B. SMALL INTESTINES
    C. MOUTH 
    D. LARGE INTESTINES
    E. STOMACH 
    D. large intestines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas are connected to ducts which enter the 
    A. kidneys
    B. duodenum
    C. cecum
    D. stomach 
    E. descending colon
    B. duodenum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. this layer makes up the inner lining of the digestive tract 
    A. CT
    B. mucosa
    C. lumenosa
    D. smooth muscle 
    B. mucosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. which is not a function of hydrocholoric acid in the stomach 
    A. denatures proteins so they can be more easily digested by enzymes
    B. actiates pepsin 
    C. provides protection against food borne disease
    D. breaks down fats
    D. breaks down fats
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. the ___ is found in the digestive tract but is associated with the immune system 
    A. tonsils
    B. appendix
    C. colon
    D. gall bladder
    E. both the appendix and tonsils
    E. both the appendix and tonsils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. which of the following terms is not associated with the large intestine
    A. cecum
    B. colon 
    C. duodenum
    D. rectum
    E. appendix
    C. duodenum 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. the epiglottis 
    A. keeps food from entering the trachea
    B. is the valve between the small and large intestine 
    C. prevents food from backing up to the esophagus
    D. is a sphincter in the large intestine
    A. keeps food from entering the trachea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. ___ contains enzymes and bicarbonate to aid digestion 
    A. pancreatic juice
    B. bile
    C. saliva
    D. mucous
    A. pancreatic  juice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. which organ stores excess glucose and synthesizes protein and fats
    A. small intestine
    B. stomach 
    C. liver
    D. colon 
    E. pancrea
    C. liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. absorption of most of nutrients occurs in the 
    A. large intestine
    B. small intestine
    C. stomach
    D. pancreas
    B. small intestine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. bile
    A. both c and d are correct
    B. emulsifies fats in the small intestine 
    C. breaks down proteins down into amino acids for absorption 
    D. is produced by the pancreas to neutralize the acidic stomach secretions 
    E. is a digestive enzyme produced by the small intestine
    B. emulsifies fats in the small intestine 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. material backing up through the gastroesophageal sphincter causes
    A. diarrhea
    B. food to not be fully digested
    C. heartburn
    D. an ulcer
    C. heartburn 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. human WBC
    A. produce plasma 
    B. are much small than RBC
    C. have a nucleus
    D. are biconcave disks
    C. have a nucleus 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. tissue fluid is most similar in composition to 
    A. water
    B. plasma
    C. urine
    D. whole blood 
    B. plasma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. which of the following are needed for blood clotting
    A. hemoglobin
    B. platelets and proteins
    C. WBC and platelets
    D. WBC and proteins
    B. platelets and proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. where are oxyhemoglobin formed in the body
    A. the lungs
    B. the coronary arteries
    C. the aorta
    D. the systemic tissues
    A. the lungs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. the formed elements include
    A. platelets
    B. all choices are correct
    C. leukocytes
    D. erythrocytes 
    B. all choices are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. which of the following contain blood with the highest oxygen concentration 
    A. pulmonary artery
    B. pulmonary vein 
    C. right ventricle 
    D. superior vena cava
    B. pulmonary vein 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. this protein forms a net as part of the blood clotting process
    A. albumin 
    B. fibrin 
    C. hemoglobin 
    D. agglutinin
    B. fibrin 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. gas exchange between blood and tisues occurs in the 
    A. arteries
    B. capillaries
    C. lymphatic ducts
    D. veins
    E. heart chambers
    B. capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. some monocytes become specialized cells called 
    A. eosinophils
    B. macrophages
    C. erythrocytes
    D. basophils
    B. macrophages
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. veins 
    A. have valves 
    B. always carry blood away from the heart
    C. always carry blood towards the heart 
    D. always carry highly oxygenated blood
    E. both c and d are correct
    E. both c and d are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. a signal sent directly from the ______ causes the ventricles to contract
    A. precapillary sphincters
    B. sa node
    C. av valve
    D. av node
    D. av node
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. if a persons blood pressure is 110/60, the 110 represents
    A. pressure during ventricular relaxation 
    B. systolic prssure 
    C. diastolic pressure
    D. both B and C are correct
    B. systolic pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. what causes a heart attack 
    A. a blockage in a coronary artery 
    B. blood moving throuh the vnetricles too quickly to allow gas exhcange
    C. a valve malfunction causing blood to pool in the atria
    D. disruption of signals from the SA node 
    A. a blockage in a coronary artery 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. the AV valves are open durin 
    A. atrial systole 
  90. the second sound in the heartbeat DUB is caused by 
    a closing of the semilunar valves
  91. when smooth muslces within the walls of the aterial blood vessels contract 
    A. the blood moves more quickly
    B. the blood pressure increases 
    C. all of the choices are correct
    D. the vessel has constricted
    E. the diameter of the blood vessel gets small
    C. all of the above
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. the blood vessels that nourish the heart muscle are the ____
    A. semilunar arteries
    B. coronary arteries
    C. aortic stents
    D. pulmonary veins
    B. coronary arteries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. angioplasty is 
    A. a malfunction in the hearts conduction system 
    B. an irregular heartbeat 
    C. a procedure to open a blocked artery 
    D. a buildup of plaque in the arteries
    C. a procedure to open a blocked artery 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. in the pulmonary circuit, the right half of the heart pumps ___ blood to the ____, and then _____ blood flows back to the heart. 
    A. oxygenated, body tissues, deoxygenated 
    B. deoxygenated, body tissues, oxygenated
    C. deoxygenated, lungs, oxygenated
    D. oxygenated, lungs, deoxygenated
    C. deoxygenated, lungs, oxygenated 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. if an individual had a heart problem in which blood was leaking back into the right atrium during ventricular systole, which valve would be malfunctioning
    A. pericardial
    B. mitral
    C. tricuspid
    D. aortic semilunar
    C. tricuspid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. pre-capillary sphincters
    A. regulate blood flow in a capillary bed
    B. cause a heart attack when they malfunction 
    C. are found near valves in the heart
    D. push blood through the capillaries
    A. regulate blood flow in acapillary bed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Choose the correct pairing
    A. osteocytes, bone forming cells 
    B. osteoblasts, mature bone cells
    C. osteoclasts, break down bone 
    D. all of the choice are correct
    C. osteoclasts, break down bone 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. where is yellow marrow found in the ones
    A. in spongy bone
    B. the diaphysis
    C. the epiphyses
    D. within the osteons
    B. the diaphysis 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. the continued erosion and replacement of bone tissue is called 
    A. ossification 
    B. hematoma
    C. remodeling
    D. deposition
    C. remodeling 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. what is the function of red bone marrow
    A. produces bone cells 
    B. produces blood ells
    C. secretes lymph
    D. builds the bone matrix
    e. all of the above
    B. produces blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. trabeculae are
    A. mature bone cells
    B. units of compact bone 
    C. structures of spongy bone 
    D. cells that breaks down bone 
    C. structures of spongy bone 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. The major purpose of the epiphyseal plates near the ends of long bone is 
    A. mending factures
    B. enlarging the epiphyses
    C. providing strength in long bones
    D. lenthening long bones
    D. lengthening long bones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. the articulations between the vertebrae are examples of ___ joint 
    A. vestigial 
    B. cartilaginous 
    C. fibrocartilage
    D. synovial
    B. cartilaginous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. the triceps brachii are described as antagonistic to the biceps brachii because 
    A. they both pull on the humerus and both go across the same joint
    B. they both pull on the humerus
    C. one raises and the other lowers the forearm 
    D. they both go across the same joint
    C. one raises and the other lowers the forearm 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. a skeletal muscle cell is called a 
    A. muscle fiber
    B. muscle striation
    C. myofilament
    D. myotendril
    A. muscle fiber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores ____ necessary for muscle contraction 
    A. glucose
    B. calcium 
    C. oxygen
    D. ATP
    B. calcium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. which myofilament uses ATP and forms cross-bridges during contraction ?
    A. myosin 
    B. neither actin or myosin 
    C. actin 
    D. both actin and myosin 
    A. myosin 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. the quickest method of providing ATP for muscle activity is 
    A. fermentation 
    B. creatine phosphate conversion 
    C. oxidative reduction 
    D. aerobic cellular respiration 
    B. creatine phosphate conversion 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. sarcomeres within myofibrils 
    A. are sections of actin 
    B. get shorter (compress) as the muscle fiber contracts
    C. get longer (expand) as the muscle fiber contracts
    D. provide energy to the myofilaments
    B. get shorter (compress) as the muscle fiber contracts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. when the amount of ____ in the blood reaches the renal threshold, the kidneys cannot reabsorb it and some will remain in the urine 
    A. water
    B. ammonia
    C. glucose
    D. creatinine 
    C. glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. the urethra connects the urinary bladder to the 
    A. kidney
    B. sphincteral tube
    C. exeterior of the body 
    D. liver
    E. ureter
    C. exterior of the body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. the microscopic anatomical structure within the kidneys that forms urine is the 
    A. renal pelvis
    B. nephron
    C. renal medulla
    D. juxtaglomerular apparatus
    B. nephron 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. the process of elimination of soluble metabolic wastes is called
    A. secretion
    B. metabolism
    C. defecation
    D. excretion
    D. excretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. concentrations of metabolically important substances such as glucose are usually 
    A. high in glomerular filtrate and urine
    B. high in glomerular filtrate, but little to none is found inurine 
    C. low in flomerular filtrate but high in urine
    D. low in both glomerular filtrate and urine 
    B. high in glomerular filtrate, but little to  none is found in urine 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. penicillin is filtered through nephron tubular walls and not through the glomerulus. therefore, penicillin is removed from the bblood by the process called
    A. osmosis
    B. tubular secretion 
    C. tubular reabsorption 
    D. filtration 
    B. tubular secretion 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. during tubular reabsorption 
    A. substances are filtered from the capillaries into the tubule 
    B. glocose and sodium are absorbed into the capillaries using specific carrier molecules 
    C. glucose and sodium are absorbed using simple diffusion 
    D. substances such as penicillin, H+ ions, and creatinine are filtered into the tubule 
    B. glucose and sodium are absorbed into the capillaries using specific carrier molecules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. an increased amount of ADH leads to 
    A. kidney failure
    B. an increased output of urine
    C. no change in the output of urine 
    D. a decreased output of urine 
    D. a decreased output of urine 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. bacteria
    A. have a nucleus 
    B. are prokaryotic
    C. are all disease- causing
    D. have a capsid
    e. all of the above are correct
    B. are prokaryotic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. west nile virus and lyme disease are spread through which type of transmission 
    A. ingestion 
    B. direct contact 
    C. vector borne 
    D. indirect contact
    C. vector- born 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. this infectious agent is not a living organism 
    A. bacteria 
    B. viruses
    C. protozoans
    D. both a and b are correct
    E. prions
    D. both a and b are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. which type of pathogen can often be successfully treated using antibiotics
    A. bacteria 
    B. eukaryotic pathogens 
    C. viruses
    d. all off the above 
    A. bacteria 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. which of the following is an example of passive immunity 
    A. production of antibodies in response to an infection 
    B. antibodies recieved through mothers milk 
    C. receiving the MMR vaccine
    D. the inflammatory response
    B. antibodies recieved through mothers milk 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. phagocytosis is performed by some WBC in response to infection. phagocytosis 
    A. is how plasma cells attack pathogens
    B. both a and b are correct
    C. is part of the inflammatory response
    D. involves transport through the plasma membrane
    E. involves the use of lysosomes to digest the pathogen
    B. both a and be are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. antigens
    A. are produced by monocytes to fight infections
    B. allow the body to determine self from non-self 
    C. attack cancer affected cells 
    D. are toxic to WBC 
    B. allow the body to determine self from non-self
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. These specialized cells produce substances that enhance both the B and T cell responses
    A. helper T cells
    B. mast cells
    C. basophils 
    D. macrophages
    A. helper t cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. which of the following is part of the non-specific defenses
    A. mucous membranes
    B. antibody
    C. plasma cell
    D. memory b cell
    A. mucous membranes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. the shape of receptors on lymphocytes is complementary to a specific 
    A. RBC
    B. antigen 
    C. complement protein 
    D. antibody
    B. antigen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. activated B cells produce clones called ____ which produce and secrete antibodies 
    A. natural killer cells 
    B. macrophages
    C. plasma cells
    D. erythrocytes
    C. plasma cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. most vaccines contain ___ to stimulate immunity 
    A. DNA
    B. antigen
    C. bacteria
    D. antibodies 
    B. antigens 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. what is the ultimate reason we breath ?
    a. the movement of air through the trachea stimulates the heart to beat
    b. reathing brings in oxygen and removes CO2 involved in aerobic cellular respiration 
    d. breathing helps circulate glucose throughout the body, feuling our cells 
    e. all of the above
    b. breathing brings in O2 and removes CO2 involved in aerobic cellular respiration 

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