Nutrition Final 2.txt

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zhanglin123
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188336
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Nutrition Final 2.txt
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2012-12-13 22:49:18
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nutrition final
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  1. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
  2. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

    400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
  3. major nutrients from Fruits and Vegetable group (3个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    •  Fiber
  4. Meat / beans group have low in what (2个)
    low in Ascorbic Acid(抗坏血酸  也叫 vitamin C) and Calcium
  5. the body's need for energy for (3个)
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  6. convert lb.  → kg
    lb. / 2.2 = ___kg   

    ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 =  50    kg )
  7. convert 440lb to kg ?
    440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
  8. calculate BMR (基础代谢率)

    Male:
    Female:
    Male:   1 * ___kg * 24°

    Female :  0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  9. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR 
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg   才能算

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  10. factors affecting BMR (9个)
    • 1). genetic body composition
    • 2). body condition
    • 3). gender
    • 4). hormonal secretion
    • 5). sleep
    • 6). age
    • 7). body temprature
    • 8). nicotine from smoking
    • 9). fasting or crash diets
  11. the major gland (腺) affects BMR
    thyroid(甲状腺)------甲状腺的主要功能是合成甲状腺激素,调节机体代谢,
  12. Hyperthyroidism(甲状腺功能亢进症)
    (↑↑↑)fast BMR, so ↑ food intake
  13. Hypothyroidism(甲状腺功能减退症)
    (↓↓↓) slow BMR, so ↓ food intake
  14. age group affect BMR
    infancy, childhood, puberty(青春期), pregnancy, lactation哺乳期 (↑ BMR)

    BMR Begins to ↓ at age 25
  15. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  16. The Thermic Effect of Food 可消化多少热量?( Hint: 跟BMR 和 Activity 有关 )
    10% (BMR + Activity)

    ex:  10% (1200 + 600 ) = 180 kcal  

    • Thermic Effect of Food 消耗最少的热量
    • BMR 消耗最多的热量
  17. fat deposition influences health (2个体型)
    apple vs. pear shape  (apple shape 比较危险, 因为大多数的器官都在上半身)
  18. cause of Obesity
    ↑ technology  + ↑ junk food =  ↑ obesity
  19. what are functions of water? (7个)
    • 1). Solvent of Nutrients (溶剂营养成分)
    • 2). Growth Facilitator (促进增长)
    • 3). Catalyst for many biological reactions (催化生物反应)
    • 4). Lubricant of Joints (润滑关节)
    • 5). Temperature Regulator (调节温度)
    • 6). Source of Trace Element (微量元素的来源)
    • 7). Need Water to make urine to excrete waste(需要水,使尿液排泄废物)
  20. Athlete's consumption of water and food
    Water recommendation for Vigorous activity (猛烈运动)
    1 cup water / 15 mins
  21. Athlete's consumption of water and food
    what to eat if become dehydrated? (3个)
    • salty food
    • water
    • fruits
  22. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG(味精)
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  23. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water leaving from the blood and entering the cell (avoiding edema 水肿)
  24. Functions of Potassium
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *maintain water balance
    • *maintain osmotic pressure
  25. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • Na & K ratio
    • decrease in Na increase in K
  26. Na & K both maintain
    • maintain water balance
    • maintain osmotic pressure (渗透压 ) U 形排水管
  27. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  28. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = brown motting on teeth 褐色斑点
  29. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  30. food source of Chloride (Cl)
    Salt (NaCl)
  31. Functions of Chloride (Cl)
    in the stomach as part of digestive juices (HCL)
  32. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  33. Calcium provides rigidity in our ________  ( 让什么个坚硬)
    bones and teeth
  34. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus, flourine, magnesium, calcium
    • tooth formation
    • growth
    • blood clotting (血液凝固)
    • catalyst for biological reaction
  35. 4 mineral invovled Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  36. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass(消化系统质量酸度)
    • lactose
  37. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin excess stomach acid
  38. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones healthplication
  39. Food Sources of Ca (6个)
    • diary (milk, yogurt, cheese)
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kale
  40. Milk is high in __ low in __ & ____
    high in Ca low in Fe & Vitamin C
  41. cause of Osteoporosis  (骨质疏松) (3个)
    • long standing dietary inadequacy
    • poor utilization or absorption
    • excrete (排泄) more Ca (Alcohol cause more Ca excretion)
  42. Osteomalacia known as adult _____, and low level of _____
    adult ricket (佝偻病)

    Vitamin D
  43. where we can find Phosphorus (P)?
    coke, 7up, roast beef, and milk
  44. Magnesium is absorbed on the bone surface (the 4 minerals involved in bone formation are ______________)
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Magnesium
  45. Sources of Magnesium
    fish, nuts, soybeans, and spinach
  46. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  47. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur which decrease_____________
    which decrease risk of cancer

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