Chi 10 Study Guide

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  1. Barioization
    1.      When: Post Mexico-U.S. War (1848)2.      Where: American Southwest   3.      Who: Mexican-Americans (Albert Camarillo) 4.      What: a)      the formation of residentially & socially segregated Chicano barrios or neighborhoods b)      produced by unjust laws that limited where Mexicans can live c)      Mexicans sought a safe haven that connected them through culture 5.      Significance: displays a subtle form of resistance by Mexicans in that they maintain their culture ties and unite
  2. Mutalistas/Mutual Aid Societies
    1.      When: Post Mexico-U.S. War (1848)2.      Where: American Southwest 3.      Who: Ethnic Mexicans 4.      What: a)      a fraternal organization established to promote patriotism, protection, material assistance, faith, work, & unityb)      Members paid dues that would be used in crisis of members → death, new comers, loss of jobc)      Example → Alianza Hispano Americana, Sacramento (1929) → helped poor, disabled, and widowed 5.      Significance: displays a subtle form of resistance by Mexicans in that the Mutual Aid Societies provided opportunities that were not given to Mexicans in the U.S. 
  3. Push & Pull Model
    1.      When: 1890-19202.      Where: From Mexico to U.S.3.      Who: Mexicans immigrants 4.      What:a)      States that push factors drive away individuals from a location & pull factors draw individuals to a new locationb)      Push factors: expansion of the railroad system, to escape Profirio Diaz, escape unbearable living conditions, to escape atrocities of Mexican Revolutionsc)      Pull factors: labor shortages from Chinese Exclusion Act 1902 & Gentleman’s Agreement 1907, recruiting locations, newspapers & radio advertisements 5.      Significance:
  4. Mexican Revolution
    1.      When: 1910-19172.      Where: Mexico 3.      Who: poor peasants vs. the wealthy in control of government 4.      What:a)      President Porfirio Diaz ruled with an iron fist for 35 years 1876-1911 → modernized Mexico at the expense of the poor → promoted industry (railroads, factories, dams)b)      Food prices climbed (less land for cultivating)c)      Land was taken away from peasants → led the revolution d)     Francisco Madero called rebellion against Diaz in 1910e)      1 mil → legally migrate to U.S. (1/3 of population)5.      Significance: This is an overt form of resistance from peasants to those in power in the government. Peasants could no longer withstand their conditions.
  5. Pocho
    1.      When: N/A2.      Where: U.S. 3.      Who: Mexican-American 4.      What: a)      term used by native-born Mexicans to describe Mexican-Americans who are perceived to have forgotten or rejected their Mexican heritage to some degree (sell outs)5.      Significance: Mexican-American identity was challenged, for it was questioned. This depicts the struggle Mexican Americans went through since they could not fully identity with Americans or Mexicans fully.
  6. League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
    1.      When: 19292.      Where: Corpus Christi, Texas 3.      Who: middle class educated professional Mexican-Americans 4.      What:a)      A group composed of Mexican-American middle class individuals that advocated for assimilation of Mexicans & emphasized their American identity b)      Separated themselves from low skilled & backward Mexicans → white due to treaty of GHc)      Barred non-citizen from meetings (only English in meetings)d)     Believed in achieving civil rights through patriotism & citizenship → English classes, voter registration, pledged allegiance to the flage)      Protested segregation under the belief that Mexicans can assimilate easier if they aren’t separate  5.      Significance: This was a response to repatriation of Mexicans. They sought to distinguish themselves from the new waves of Mexican immigrants. Assimilation was seen as a way to avoid discrimination.
  7. Repatriation
    1.      When: 1930s2.      Where: U.S.3.      Who: Mexicans vs. Government (Hoover)4.      What:a)      The government sponsored forced deportation of Mexicans regardless of citizenship from the U.S. to Mexico b)      Approximately 500,000 Mexicans deported c)      Received no relief. Employers pressured to fire least deserving of jobs. d)     Train system  was central in the repatriation of Mexicans5.      Significance: Mexicans were scapegoated during the Great Depression which fueled stereotypes & created Mexican hysteria. Assumption of taking jobs, & use up tax payer money.
  8. Alvarez v. Lemon Grove
    1.      When: 19312.      Where: Lemon Grove, CA3.      Who: local Mexican community v. School Board Members 4.      What:a)      Local school board built a separate school for Mexican children without giving notice to the parents → based their segregation because of their language handicap & they needed to be Americanized b)      Local Mexican community members didn’t allow their children to go the segregated school → referred to as “la caballeriza”c)      With the help of the Mexican consul parents took the school board to courtd)     Court ruled that the segregation of Mexican students violated the laws of CA5.      Significance: This is the first successful school desegregation court decision in U.S. history. It shows that Mexican-Americans did not sit idly & allow their rights to be infringed. It shows that organizational efforts can bring success.
  9. Home Teacher Act
    1.      When: 19152.      Where: California 3.      Who: Anglo teachers and Mexican families 4.      What:a)      Allowed teachers to visit homes of Mexican children & teach mothers English, U.S. history, & homemaking skills5.      Significance: mothers were strategically targeted since they were the driving force that implemented cultural norms and values. Americans wanted Mexicans to assimilate to their norms and values.
  10. Americanization Programs
    1.      When: Late 1800s2.      Where: Detroit, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston 3.      Who: Protestants and minorities 4.      What:a)      A method to funnel protestant middle class values b)      Taught how to live like Americans  through teachings of civics, hygiene, English, & history c)      Example → Hull House by Jane Adams in Chicago d)     Example → Education → socialized children, taught particular history, Spanish was punishable, taught gender roles, girls → domestic roles, boys → low skill employment roles 5.      Significance: These programs were created to assimilate minorities to American norms & values. It was seen as their duty to uplift the backwards people.
  11. Rose Gregory Houchen Center
    1.      When: founded in 1912 thrived 1920s-1960s2.      Where: El Paso, Texas 3.      Who: missionaries 4.      What:a)      Americanization center b)      Initial goals → provide a Christian rooming house for single Mexicana wage earners & open a kindergarten for area children c)      Americanization programs offered → citizenship, hygiene, cooking, carpentry, English instruction, Bible study, & Boy Scouts later  d)     Low cost accessible health care in their clinic e)      15,000-20,000 (one fourth to a third of El Paso) utilized their medical or educational facilities f)       Convert Mexicans to Methodism 5.      Significance: The missionaries felt it was their duty to bring salvation to Mexicans. They wanted Mexicans to assimilate to America & convert to Methodism.
  12. Mendez v. Westminster
    1.      When: 19462.      Where: CA3.      Who: Gonzalo & Felicitas Mendez, William Guzman, Frank Palomino, Thomas Estrada & Lorenzo Ramirez v. Westminster, Garden Grove, Santa Ana, & El Modena School Districts 4.      What:a)      Segregation of Mexican students from Anglo schools disputedb)      Petitioners argued school districts intentionally segregated Mexican students → violation of 14th amendment c)      Testimonies of local community members & children on segregation of schools → parents denied school transfers & inferior quality of schools d)     Social scientists testified → negative effects of segregation of the educational & social development of the group labeled inferior e)      School districts argued the basis of segregation was on language differences not discrimination f)       Judge McCormick ruled that segregation based on race or ancestry was a violation of the 14th amendment & segregation suggest inferiority where there is none 5.      Significance: This was the first case in which social scientists were used as evidence.  It helped pave the way for Mexicans to receive their full civil rights.
  13. American GI Forum
    1.      When: 19482.      Where: Corpus Christi, Texas 3.      Who: Mexican-American WWII veterans 4.      What:a)      Organization founded by Dr. Hector Garcia that advocated for protection of civil rights 5.      Significance: Formed because despite Mexican efforts at home & the war front → work, housing, education, & public facilities were still segregated. Veterans expected to be treated, but came back to the same conditions as before. This shows that Mexican-American efforts to assimilate through patriotism would not be enough to eliminate discrimination.
  14. Dr. Hector Perez Garcia
    1.      When: Born 19142.      Where: Born Tamaulipas, Mexico 3.      Who: N/A4.      What:a)      Garcia was a Mexican-American surgeon, WWII veteran, founder of the GI Forum, & civil rights advocate. 5.      Significance: Garcia was instrumental in publicizing civil rights & veterans concerns. He helped publicize veteran’s disappointment with conditions at home upon arrival. Despite their war effort they were still treated the same as before.
  15. Felix Longoria
    1.      When: 19492.      Where: Three Rivers, Texas 3.      Who: Mexican-American War hero 4.      What:a)      Felix was killed in the Philippines during WWII & his body was denied funereal services in a white funeral home b)      American GI Forum lobbied for his civil rights → was buried in Arlington National Cemetery 5.      Significance: Mexicans were discriminated through segregation. This affair shows that Mexican-American efforts to assimilate through patriotism would not be enough to eliminate discrimination.  
  16. The Sleepy Lagoon Trial
    1.      When: 19422.      Where: Los Angeles 3.      Who: Pachucos/as 4.      What:a)      Group of Mexicans went to Sleepy Lagoon → a fight broke out → Jose Diaz died b)      LAPD used murder to round up 300 pachucosc)      22 young Mexican men convicted under title of 38th street gangd)     Scholars of Mexican culture argued that Mexican culture has desire to kill since they are descendants from Aztecs whom killed 30k people a day  → had disregard for lifee)      12 defendants convicted of murder & 5 of assault → sent to San Quentin prison f)       Pachucas convicted → sent to reform school g)      U.S. district court over turns conviction in 1944 → lack of evidence & judge violated constitutional rights of defendants 5.      Significance: The trial shows the reality that Mexican-Americans were still being discriminated upon despite their contributions to the war effort. The trial was the precursor to the zoot suit riots.
  17. Jose Diaz
    1.      When: 19422.      Where: Sleepy Lagoon 3.      Who: N/A 4.      What:a)      Was murdered during a party in sleep lagoon b)      LAPD used his murder to round up 300 pachucos 5.      Significance: Pachucos blamed for murder of Jose Diaz & discriminated under the pretense that they were suspects.
  18. The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee
    1.      When: 19422.      Where: Log Angeles 3.      Who: Los Angeles Community members 4.      What: a)      An organization that publicized the case & raised funds to help support the convicted Mexican youth b)      Alice McGraw did legal research 5.      Significance: Fought for injustices done by the court. During trial they weren’t read their rights & weren’t allowed to bath, speak, cut hair, sit with attorney & they sat in a prisoner’s box that faced the jury. Jury members were allowed to go home at night → influenced by media’s depiction.
  19. The Zoot Suit Riots
    1.      When: 19432.      Where: East LA neighborhoods 3.      Who: Mexicans & Navy Sailors on leave 4.      What:a)      U.S. sailors attack Pachucos for 10 days → they went to Chicano neighborhoods & attacked any Mexican b)      They were beat with clubs → hospitalizedc)      Women pachucas raped → argued that they were asking for it based on their appearance d)     Sailors claimed it was to teach Pachucos a lesson → Mexican men avoid draft e)      Pachucos were always the ones rounded up by police & sailors just asked to go back to base f)       Press labels all Pachucos as trouble makers  g)      LA City Council banned the use of the zoot suith)      Chicano community forbids children to use zoot suiti)        Riots took place on pre-existing racial tensions. There was a wartime conservation of fabric so zoot suits were seen as wasting fabric. Mexicans were perceived as not belonging in downtown L.A.  5.      Significance: Despite the war effort by Mexicans they were still second class citizens.
  20. 38th Street Gang
    1.      When: 19422.      Where: Los Angeles 3.      Who: Pachucos 4.      What:a)      The association of 22 young Mexican men as a group during the Sleep Lagoon trial that contributed to the murder of Jose Diaz (no evidence to convict)b)      Henry Leyvas was the supposed gang leader 5.      Significance: This was the first time gang was used for perceived mischievous activities. They were denied of their constitutional rights as well.
  21. The Migrant Labor Agreement
    1.      When: 19512.      Where: U.S. 3.      Who: Mexican laborers 4.      What:a)      Braceros not used to replace domestic workers or depress domestic wages b)      Were granted transportation, housing, food, & repatriationc)      No discrimination (exclusion from white areas)d)     Joint investigation by U.S. & Mexico on violations5.      Significance: This legislation protected the rights of migrants, but existing discrimination would not uphold the agreement.
  22. The Bracero Program
    1.      When: 1942-19642.      Where: 26 states 3.      Who: Mexican laborers 4.      What:a)      Contract labor agreement in agriculture, mining, & railroads between U.S. & Mexicob)      Became third largest industry for Mexico sending 30 million dollars homec)      4.6 million workers employed under program durationd)     Arrived through train where they were processed & full medical exam, disinfected of assumed diseases with DDT (dangerous)e)      Faced discrimination & hard working conditions  → dual wage system, no access to medical institutions & 10 hour work day 5.      Significance: It created networks that created illegal immigration since there was more supply of labor than available spots.
  23. Short-handed hoe
    1.      When: 19422.      Where: U.S. farms 3.      Who: farm workers 4.      What:a)      A short shovel used by farm workers → it caused back problems & was considered inhumane b)      UFW fought for its removal 5.      Significance: Depicts one of the many harsh working conditions Mexicans faced in the agriculture industry.
  24. Hernandez v. Texas
    1.      When: 19542.      Where: Jackson County, Texas 3.      Who: Gus Garcia, Carlos Cadena, James DeAnda, & John Herrera4.      What:a)      Pedro Hernandez an agricultural worker → convicted for the murder of well-liked tenant farmer Joe Espinosa b)      Mexican-American Attorneys used this case as a way to publicize the discrimination of Mexicans from juries c)      Argued that Mexicans were a class a part and should be protected under the 14th amendment d)     The Texas court & court of appeals → disregarded the case since Mexicans were white & weren’t covered by the equal protection clause e)      Argued that doing so would give Mexicans special privileges not given to other members of white racef)       Supreme court ruled that the 14th amendment did apply to them5.      Significance: Mexican-Americans sought to present their own view of where they fit in American society & where they stood in the American binary of black and white. They had to prove that they were white but were not equal. They faced social and economic discrimination.
  25. A class apart theory
    1.      When: 19542.      Where: U.S. 3.      Who: George Sanchez & Carlos Cadena 4.      What:a)      Theory that argued that Mexicans were white but were a class apart so they were protected under the 14th amendment (was used in the Hernandez v. Texas case)b)      Mexicans were discriminated upon & treated like African-Americans despite their legal status of white.c)      Mexicans were barred from certain public facilities d)     Sanchez & Carlos outlined the brief that explained the class apart theory 5.      Significance: This theory allowed for the recognition of the oppression of Mexicans even though they were under the white label.
  26. 14th Amendment
    • 1.      When: 18682.      Where:
    • U.S.3.      Who: former freed slaves 4.      What:a)      Created to ensure former freed slave would receive equal protection of the U.S. laws. Hernandez v. Texas case included Mexican-Americans into the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. 5.      Significance: Freed slaves were susceptible to discrimination. Amendment was created for their needs. This amendment would create a black and white binary in the courts.
  27. National Farmworkers Association/United Farm Workers Union (UFW)
    1.      When: 1962 & 19662.      Where: CA3.      Who: American farm workers 4.      What:a)      An organization that fought for agricultural workers’ rights b)      Merger of NFWA & AWOC → UFWc)      NFWA → co-founders Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta d)     AWOC → led by Philip Veracruz e)      Emblems of Aztec eagle & La virgin de Guadalupe f)       Strikes, marches, hunger strike, pickets g)      Initiated the Delano Grape strike against CA grape growers 5.      Significance: This displays a form of resistance from farm workers against growers.
  28. Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee
    • 1.      When: 1960s2.      Where: Delano, CA3.      Who:
    • farm workers 4.      What:a)      An organization that fought for agricultural workers’ rights b)      Mostly composed of Filipino farmworkers c)      Philip Veracruz head of organization 5.      Significance: This depicts a form of resistance from farm workers against growers.  
  29. Dolores Huerta
    1.      When: 19302.      Where: New Mexico 3.      Who: N/A4.      What: a)      Went to Delta community college → teaching certificateb)      Taught grammar school → resigned → saw hungry children living in poverty & wanted to impact them more directly c)      Became a lobbyist in Sacramento (more active)d)     Co-founder of National Farm Workers association e)      Bargained with Grape industry in 19705.      Significance: She served as the organizing side of the United Farm Workers. She was a tough negotiator. She displays a form of resistance against growers.
  30. Cesar Chavez
    1.      When: 19272.      Where: Arizona 3.      Who: N/A 4.      What: a)      Received only an 8th grade education → had to provide for family in the fields b)      Civil rights activist for workers’ rights → co-founder of the National Farm Workers association (later become United Farm Workers) c)      Influenced by non-violence tactics of Ghandi & Martin Luther King even if violence was used against themd)     Initiated a hunger strike in 1968 → 30 days 5.      Significance: This depicts a form of resistance from Chavez.
  31. Delano Grape Strike
    1.      When: 1965-19702.      Where: CA3.      Who: UFW4.      What:a)      Strike started by AWOC later joined by NFWA & united under UFWb)      Strike & boycott against grape growers in CAc)      UFW asked for recognition of union, collective bargaining & contract that gave housingd)     Grassroots movement → pressured markets & the public not to buy CA grapese)      Had multiple rallies & marches for their cause f)       Gained national attention g)      Victory of farm workers → led to the first contract with growers 5.      Significance: The grass roots efforts of farm workers succeeded. This shows farm workers resisting their exploitation by growers.
  32. Teatro Campesino
    1.      When: 19652.      Where: Delano, CA3.      Who: Luis Valdez founder 4.      What: a)      Group that performed short skits during UFW picket lineb)      Performed on flatbed trucks in the middle of fields 5.      Significance: They championed the cause of the UFW by uplifting the moral of picketers.
  33. Sal Castro
    1.      When: 1933 born 2.      Where: East Los Angeles area3.      Who: N/A 4.      What:a)      Lincoln High school teacher, activist & organizer for Chicano movement b)      Encouraged students to get organized & supported student walkout → encouraged them to demand rights c)      Promotes Chicano history d)     Was critical of tracking system → Mexicans put in vocational classes 5.      Significance: Helped publicize that Mexican students faced institutional racism.  Was instrumental in the second phase of the Chicano movement by empowering youth through history.
  34. Walkouts/Blowouts
    1.      When: 1968 (for a week)2.      Where: East LA, Garfield, Belmont, Roosevelt, Wilson, Lincoln High Schools 3.      Who: 10,000 students4.      What:a)      Began in summer youth camps → learn history & culture → staged walkoutb)      Conducted marches & speeches c)      Students take to the streets & demand bi-lingual, bi-cultural education for Chicanos, Revision of textbooks to cover Mexican & Mexican-American contributions to U.S. d)     LAPD confront students brutally 5.      Significance: Education was seen as corrupt in that courses geared students to low skill jobs (no college prep). Ridiculed for being Mexican. Their education was inferior and their schools were poor.
  35. Brown Berets
    1.      When: 19682.      Where: East LA3.      Who: gang members/troubled youth 4.      What: a)      An outlet for gang members b)      Paramilitary troops founded by David Sanchez modeled after black panthers c)      Marched alongside protestors 5.      Significance: Served as security for walkouts to protect from LAPD abuse.
  36. Rigoberta Menchu
    1.      When: born 19592.      Where: Guatemala 3.      Who: N/A4.      What:a)      Female indigenous rights activist, social rights, women’s rights b)      Born to a poor Mayan family → picked coffee in big plantationsc)      Involvement in Catholic church d)     Taught herself how to read/write Spanish & and many other Mayan languages e)      Father imprisoned for accusation of killing a plantation owner  f)       Brother arrested & killed by the Army g)      1979 joins committee for Peasant Unionh)      1990 strike for better farm working conditions i)        1991 she went into hiding → fled to Mexico j)        1992 received Nobel peace prize for her efforts 5.      Significance: She became an organizer abroad showing a form of resistance to the oppression in Guatemala.
  37. United Fruit Compan (UFCO)
    1.      When: 18992.      Where: U.S. 3.      Who: U.S. corporation 4.      What:a)      Two U.S. companies merged under the UFCOb)      Maintained a monopoly on the distribution of bananas c)      U.S. received/purchased 60%-90% of region exportsd)     Guatemalan president Jacobo Arventz presents agrarian reform in which he distributes 1.2 million acres of land to families in 1950e)      UFCO was angered since they had huge land holdings by laying railroad tracks previously (85% unused)f)       UFCO believed Guatemala had ties with Soviet Union & acted as a puppet government g)      UFCO publicized that Guatemala was soft on communism & argued that if Guatemala became communist all of Central America would too to the U.Sh)      U.S. would get involved in the civil war that would follow under the pretense of preventing communism from spreading5.      Significance: UFCO was pivotal in the politics of Central America because it held large tracks of land. UFOC’s holding of large tracks of land cased much social & civil unrest leading up to the civil war in 1980.
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Chi 10 Study Guide
2012-12-10 07:31:52
Chi 10 Final Study Guide

Chicano Studies 10 Final
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