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Point A to B - increased animal welfare due to domestication, increased production
Point B to C - decreased animal welfare due to increased productivity, producing to own detriment
Beyond C - Unsustainable conditions, collapse of production, animal death
What are the 5 Freedoms?
- Freedom from hunger and thirst
- Freedom from discomfort
- Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
- Freedom to express natural behaviours
- Freedom from fear and distress
What is coping?
Animals' ability to adapt to its current situation and surroundings
What is distress?
Failure to cope
What are the 4 criteria needed for something to be deemed sentient?
- Ability to evaluate actions of others in relation to self and 3rd parties
- Ability to remember own actions and consequences
- Ability to assess risk
- Ability to have feelings and degree of awareness
What is pain?
An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience, occurs in brain
What are the 3 different kinds of pain?
- Acute - immediate
- Chronic inflammatory - healing persists beyond expected time
- Chronic neuropathic - no well-defined oset, may not respond to treatments, intractable
What is nociception
The detection of a noxious stimulus
What are the 2 nociception mechanisms?
- Peripheral - noxious stimulus of tissues, reflex does not involve CNS
- Central - unconcious processing by the spinal cord and brain
What are 2 abnormal pain responses in peripheral mechanisms?
- Allodynia - pain from stimulation that is not normally painful
- Hyperalgesia - increased pain when same stimulus is repeated
What is stress?
Environmental effect that over taxes control systems and results in adverse consequences and reduced fitness
What are 3 behavioural measures of stress?
What are 3 physiological measures of stress?
- Cortisol levels
- Blood pressure
- Heart rate
What are the criteria of a stereotypy?
- Fixed action pattern
- No obvious goal or function
What are the 2 types of coping?
- Active - vices, stereotypies
- Passive - lethargy
What are the steps of the pre-pathological model?
- Pre-behavioural response
- Pre-physiological response
- Behavioural response
- Physiological response
- Pre-pathological state
- Pathological state
What are the 3 criteria of good enrichment?
- Fulfills behavioural need of the animal
What is Hume's Guillotine?
No ethical conclusion can be validly inferred from any set of purely factual premises
What are the 3 approaches to ethics?
- Descriptive - ethical values of diff ppl
- Normative - endorsed ethical values
- Metaethics - foundation of ethics, meaning of ethical terms
What is pluralism?
Social system based on mutual respect for e/o's cultures, everyone can express their culture and participate in larger society free of prejudice. INCLUSION
What are the 2 bases of standards of the BCSPCA?
- Animal-based standards - observation and record-keeping
- Environment-based standards - space, air quality, amenities, access to outdoors
What year was the Animal Protection Act proclaimed?
What is an Act?
made by ppl elected to Legislative Assembly
What is a Regulation?
Rules, procedures, codes with force of law, receives authority from statutes
What is Legislation?
Acts and Regulations
What is Policy?
consistent course of action, formal or informal
What is Animal Protection?
- Protecting animals from ppl
- Federal and provincial
What is Animal Control?
- Protecting ppl from animals
What is Compliance?
- Continuum of corrective actions, charges, prosecution and sentencing
- Not the same as enforcement, more compassionate
What is an Animal?
What is Abandoned?
- Left for >24 hrs w/o food water shelter
- Left for 5 days after expected pickup at vet or kennel
- Left at residency after tenancy is terminated
What is the exception to sentencing based on Distress?
Does not apply if distress results from commonly accepted practices
What are some issues with offenses?
- Fine no more than $20 000
- Vets not required to report
- Prohibition orders not enforceable outside of AB
- No way to deal with mentally ill