Pathophysiology of diseases
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What are the primary minerals of bones?
Calcium and phosphate
Which is the bones'main protein?
Mature bone cell
Fibrous connective tissu that covers the surface of bones. Contains osteoblasts. Site of attachement for tendons or muscles.
Diagnostic test for bone, joint and muscle diseases
- Joint Fluid aspiration and microscopic/chemical analysis
Inflammation of the bone, particularly of the bone marrow in the medullary cavity and the spaces of spongy bone. The long bones - femur, tibia, and humerus - are most frequently affected near their ends at the growth plate, especially in children and adolescents
Cause of osteomyelitis
Caused by bacteria, i.e. staphylococci, that are carried by blood to the bone from some other site in the body, sometimes an infection adjacent to the bone
An abscess in the bone, in which case compression of small blood vessels reduces circulation causing ...
Local and systemic infection of bone infection
- Local symptoms of bone infection: pain, redness, and heat.
- Systemic symptoms: chills, fever, leukocytosis, tachycardia, nausea, and anorexia
Treatment for osteomyelitis
- Early antibiotic therapy
- Surgery to remove necrotic bone tissue.
Disease of infancy or early childhood in which bones do not properly ossify, or harden. Weight-bearing bones of the body become deformed. the legs become bent. Sternum projects forward and bony nodules form on the ends of ribs, and at wrists, ankles, and knees. Skull is large and square. Pelvic opening in a girl may narrow, leading to problems with childbirth later. Other symptoms: flaccid muscles, delayed teething, potbelly.
Prevention of rickets
The softening or decalcification of bones in adults. Symptoms: muscle weakness, weight loss, and bone pain. Bones of vertebral column, legs, and pelvis become susceptible to bending and fracturing with mild stress. It is caused by inadequate dietary vitamin D and dietary deficiency of calcium or phosphorus.
Porous bone that is abnormally fragile and susceptible to fracture. Weight-bearing bones of the vertebrae and pelvis are especially susceptible. Accumulated compression fractures in these bones cause a decrease in height and bending of the spine. Compressed vertebrae press on spinal nerves, causing great pain. Fractures are common in the hip and wrists. No symptoms accompany bone loss until bones weaken and fractures occur. 80% affected are women. No cure.
Prevention for osteoporosis
Vitamin D and weight-bearing exercise. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol. Bone density screening may identify early osteoporosis.
Treatment for osteoporosis
Treatment options: estrogens and hormones such as calcitonin or parathyroid hormone as well as estrogen receptor modulators, and bisphosphonates. Calcium supplements and light weight bearing exercises.
Abnormal lateral curvatures of the vertebral column. First identify during childhood. May have muscular or skeletal origin.
Diseases of the joints
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Septic arthritis
- Sprain, dislocation and strains
A systemic disease in which several joints become affected. Symptoms: joint pain and stiffness; joints are swollen, red, and warm. Same joints are often affected on both sides of the body. As the disease is systemic, the patient experiences fatigue, weakness, and weight loss.
What appears to be the cause of rheumatoid arthritis?
Abnormal stiffening and immobility of a joint due to fusion of the bones.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis
Balance between excercise and rest. Anti-inflammatory meds and aspirin.
Most common form of arthritis. May affect only one joint. Pain and stiffness in the joint. Muscle tension and fatigue contribute to the aches and pain of osteoarthritis. Arthritis in the lower back may pinch a spinal nerve, i.e. sciatic nerve. Affected joints lose their range of motion and associated muscles become weak.
Treatment for osteoarthritis
- Rest and special exercises, medication, and heat applications.
- Steroids such as cortisone are sometimes injected into the joint capsule to relieve pain.
- Surgical replacement of a damaged joint i.e. hip or knee.
This affects the joints of the feet, particularly those of the big toe, and sometimes of the wrist or knee. The onset of an acute attack is generally sudden. It sometimes follows a minor injury or excessive eating or drinking. Microscopic examination of aspirated joint fluid reveals needle-like urate crystals. High serum level of uric acid.
Cause and treatment of gout
- Heredity and excess uric acid in blood.
- Treatment - rest, application of hot or cold compresses, and analgesics to reduce swelling and pain. Medications - colchicine, corticosteroids, uricosuric agents
Inflammation of the bursae, with limitation of movement. The shoulder joint are the most frequently affected.
A recessiveX-linked form of muscular dystrophy, affecting around 1 in 3,600 boys, which results in muscle degeneration and eventual death. Cytoskeletal protein called dystrophin is missing.
Neurotransmission failure from the nerves to the muscles at the myoneural junction. Lack of stimulation and use leads to muscle atrophy and weakness. Affects women more often than men, cause is unknown. Symptoms: fatigue and the inability to use muscles, lack of contraction in the facial muscles (masked face)
Excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back
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