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- the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten.
- her and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc.
- skeletal remains of a prehistoric man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington, USA, on July 28, 1996.
- one of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found (ca 7300 to 7600 B.C.)
- features atypical of current tribes, long dispute over rights to remains
Lord Pacal (Pakal)
- (Mayan word for Shield)
- came to power A.D. 615 (most powerful ruler of Palenque)
- sarcophagus lid
- important deity throughout Meso-America
- Aztec man-god
- "Feather Serpent" in Nahuatl
- (sun/war god)
- sent vision to Queztalcoatl to settle where an eagle is seen holding a snake on top of a cactus (this image is seen on the Mexican flag today)
- (1519) Spanish conquistador
- Cortés and his army able to defeat the Aztec with the assistance of Totonacs and Aztec enemies (thereby exploiting weaknesses in the strength of the empire)
- city fell in 1521. Ceremonial core of Tenochtitlán razed. Temples and shrines replaced with churches and governmental buildings (settlement grew into modern-day Mexico City)
Geronimo de Aguilar
- (Spanish and Maya)
- helped Hernán Cortés communicate with the Aztecs
- (Nahuatl and Maya)
- helped Hernán Cortés communicate with Aztecs
- the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan (Aztecan), reigning from 1502 to 1520
- the first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan
- (1525 A.D.) ruler died (small pox and other diseases introduced byconquistadors)
- lead to civil war between his sons Huasca and Atahuallpa
Sapa Inca Pachacuti
- built Cuzco, the capitol of the Inca Empire
- Pachacuti = “He who makes the world”
- transformed city and empire
- pretended to be a diplomat
- Queen of Spain gave permission "to discover and conquer Peru"
- captured Atahuallpa (demanded gold as ransom) and murdered him, took control of Cuzco and insalled “puppet ruler” Manco Inca
- the unvictorious son of Wayna Capac
- fought his brother Atahualpa for throne of Cuzco
- the victorious son of Wayna Capac
- fought his brother for control of Cuzco and won
- captured by Francisco Pizarro and murdered
Erich von Däniken
- Swiss writer, author of Chariots of the Gods? and owner of Mystery Park
- convinced that ancient civilizations on earth were influenced by ET visits
- “evidence” includes Lord Pacal’s sarcophagus lid, pyramids, Nasca lines, etc.
William of Occam
- 14th century English philosopher
- Occam's Razor
- “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily”
- when you have two competing theories, the one that is simpler is the better