The Skeletal System
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What are the main functions of the skeletal system?
- 1) Support
- 2) Movement
- 3) Protection
- 4) Storage (calcium)
- 5) Blood cell production
Name the main five bones of the axial skeleton?
- 1) Cranium
- 2) Mandible
- 3) Vertebral column
- 4) Ribs
- 5) Sternum
List the main bones of the appendicular skeleton.
- Radius (outside forearm - runs down side of thumb)Ulna
- Pelvic Girdle
- Fibula (outside lower leg)
What are the 5 shapes of bone?
- 1) Long
- 2) Short
- 3) Flat
- 4) Irregular
- 5) Sesamoid
Give an example of a long bone.
Femur or humerus.
Give an example of a short bone.
Tarsals or carpals.
Give an example of a flat bone.
Scapula, pelvis, ribs or cranium.
Give an example of an irregular bone.
Vertabrae or mandible.
Give an example of a sesamoid bone.
What is a joint?
A joint (or articulation) is the place where two or more bones come together.
What are the 3 major types of joints?
- 1) Fixed
- 2) Semi-Moveable
- 3) Synovial (freely moveable)
What are the main characteristics and an example of a fixed joint?
- No movement (after infancy)
- Present to facilitate child birth
- eg. Cranium, pelvis.
What are the main characteristics and an example of a semi-moveable joint?
- Slight movement
- Pad of cartilage between articulating bone.
- eg. Vertebrae, pubic bones
What are the main characteristics and an example of a freely moveable / synovial joint?
- Large amount of movement possible.
- Joint capsule and cavity present.
- Synovial fluid is secreted from synovial membrane which surrounds the joints.
- Five main types.
What are the 5 main types of synovial joints?
- 1) Gliding
- 2) Hinge
- 3) Pivot
- 4) Saddle
- 5) Ball and Socket
Give an example of a gliding joint.
(In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other)
Wrist or ankle
Give an example of a hinge joint.
(hinge joints allows extension and retraction of an appendage)
Elbow or knee
Give an example of a pivot joint.
- Top two vertebrae (Atlas and Axis)
- Radius and Ulna
Give an example of a saddle joint.
(convex and concave shapes of two bones complementing)
Thumb or metacarpal
Give an example of a ball and socket joint.
(Allows for radial movement in almost any direction)
Shoulder or hip.
What are the 4 main functions of synovial fluid?
- 1) Lubrication
- 2) Protection - cushion / shock absorber (synovial fluid thickens when compressed)3) Cleanses - moves and breaks down any debris / waste products from the joint.
- 4) Nourishes
What is the hollow shaft of a bone called and what does it contain?
Medullary cavity which contains yellow bone marrow (last ditch source of nutrition)
What is the tough skin / sheath covering bone known as?
What is found on the outside of all bones (under the periosteum) and what does it contain?
Compact bone which contains blood vessels.
What is the 'honeycomb' section of bone called and where is it found?
- Cancellous bone and it is found at the end of long bones.
- (not soft just looks spongy)
What is the smooth, hard covering at the end of bones in synovial joints? Why is it smooth and hard?
- Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage which is cleansed and nourished by synovial fluid.
- Smooth - reduce friction
- Hard - prevent wear and tear
What is calcium needed for in the body?
- strengthening of bones and teeth
- functioning of muscles, nerves, brain and kidneys
- regulation of blood acid balance
- many other cell processes
How many bones are there in the pelvic girdle?
The pelvic girdle is formed by two innominate (no name) bones. (left and right)
Name the three parts of each of the bones in the pelvic girdle.
- 1) Illium
- 2) Ischium
- 3) Pubis (Pubic Bone)
How do the two bones of the pelvic girdle meet at the front?
Two bones meet at a semi-moveable joint at the pubic bone.
How do the two bones of the pelvic girdle meet at the back?
They do not meet.
What are the two main problems associated with intervertebral discs?
- 1) Bone rubbing against bone.
- 2) Bone rubbing against nerves.
How many vertebrae are there in the spine?
33 in total
Name the five sections of the vertebral column.
How many vertebrae in the cervical section of the spine? What are the top two called? What is their main function?
- 7 (C1 - C7)
- C1 = Atlas
- C2 = Axis
- Movement and rotation of head and neck.
How many bones in the thoracic section of the spine? What is their main function?
- 12 (T1 - T12)
- Support the ribcage
How many bones in the lumbar section of the spine? What is their main fuction?
- 5 (L1 - L5)
- Allow some movement of the trunk
How many bones in the sacrum? What is their main function?
- 5 (*fused together)
- Transmits the weight of the body to the hips and legs
How many bones in the coccyx? What is their main function?
- 4 (*fused together)
- No major function
What are the 3 main functions of the vertebral column?
- 1) Protect the spinal cord
- 2) Shock absorber (in two ways)
- 3) Allows (limited) range of movement
How does the vertebral column act as a shock absorber?
- 1) The design of the intervertebral discs and padding of the cartilage.
- 2) Due to the natural curve of the spine (coiled like a spring).
What are the 3 main causes of posteral deformity?
- 1) Congenital - born with or inherited
- 2) Traumatic - accidental / impact
- 3) Environmental - lifestyle, work, habits etc.
What posture deformity can be described as the sideways 's' shape of the spine?
What posture deformity can be described as an exaggerated outward thoracic curve (rounded shoulders)?
What posture deformity can be described as an exaggerate inward lumbar curve?
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