court cases

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court cases
2012-12-10 10:55:57

court cases
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  1. Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
    • established the principle of judicial review
    • strengthened the power of the judicial branch by giving the Supreme Court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
  2. McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
    • confirmed the right of Congress to utilize implied powers to carry out its expressed powers
    • validated the supremacy of the national government over the states by declaring that states cannot interfere with or tax the legitimate activities of the federal government
  3. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
    • strengthened the power of the federal government to regulate interstate commerce
    • established the commerce clause's role as a key vehicle for the expansion of federal power
  4. Engel vs. Vitale (1962)
    • struck down state sponsered prayer in public schools
    • ruled that the Regents' prayer was an unconstitutional violation of the Establishment clause¬†
  5. Lemon vs. Kurtzman (1971)
    • struck down state funding for private religious schools
    • ruled that state aid to church-related schools must meet three tests: a.) the purpose of the aid must be clearly secular, b.) the government's action must neither advance nor inhibit religion, and c.) the government's action must not foster an "excessive entanglement" between government and religion
  6. Reynolds vs. United States (1879)
    • banned polygamy
    • distinguished between religious beliefs that are protected by the Free Exercise Clause and religious practices that may be restricted
    • ruled that religious practices cannot make an act legal that would otherwise be illegal
  7. Oregon vs. Smith (1990)
    • banned the use of illegal drugs in religious ceremonies
    • ruled that the government can act when religious practices violate criminal laws
  8. Schenck vs. United States (1919)
    • ruled that free speech could be limited when it presents a "clear and present danger..."
    • established the "clear and present danger" test to define conditions under which public authorities can limit free speech
  9. New York Times vs. Sullivan (1964)
    • ruled that public officials cannot win a suit for defamation unless the statement is made with "actual malice"
    • established the "actual malice" standard to promote "uninhibited, robust, and wide-open" public debate
  10. Roth vs. United States (1951)
    • ruled that obscenity is not constitutionally protected free speech
    • created the "prevailing community standards" rule requiring a consideration of the work as a whole