ANSC 260

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Author:
mct
ID:
188456
Filename:
ANSC 260
Updated:
2012-12-10 12:32:18
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Vitamins
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After midterm
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  1. Vitamin def
    • An organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism
    • Are bio-molecules that acts as catalysts and substrates in biochemical reactions
  2. Bio-molecules
    Occurs naturally in living organisms
  3. Catalysts
    Increase reates of chemical reactions without being consumed
  4. Substrates
    Molecules upon which an enzyme acts - substrates are changed during the reaction
  5. Cofactor
    Organic, non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between substrates
  6. Vita
    life
  7. Amine
    Nitrogren containing
  8. Intro to vitamins
    • 13 vitamins in animal nutrition
    • Cannot be synthesized by the animal (or at least not enough)
    • Required in minute quantities
    • Specific function
    • Specific deficiency signs
    • Grouped together because organic molecules and essential in diet in trace amounts
  9. Solubility
    • Water: Vit. B groups, vitamin C
    • Fat: A,D,E,K
  10. Vitamin A
    • Carotene is precusor, split in half = retinal (vit A)
    • Species convert carotene at different rates (IU)
    • Most animals can meet needs fro diet
    • Store in liver + fatty tissue, animals can use stored vit A when deficient
  11. IU
    International Units, reflects varying efficiency of conversion in body
  12. Vitamin D
    • "sun" vitamin
    • Important for Ca and P metabolism
    • Role in immune function development + regulation
    • Less vital in mature animals (less bone formation)
  13. Vitamin E
    • Requirement inclusion rates (IU)
    • Antioxidant
    • Immune function
    • Absorption of vit. A
  14. Vitamin K
    • Essential for normal blood clotting
    • Synthesized in rumen, large intestine
    • Most animals get enough from diet (pig, poutlry and fast growers need supplements)
    • Mouldy feeds and certain drugs may cause deficiency (dicourmal and warfin)
  15. Water-soluble
    • Not stored in large amounts (except B12)
    • Vitamin pre-mixes assume nothing in diet
    • Toxicoses unlikely
    • Most are catalysts
    • Deficiency in developed countries are rare (alcoholics and feed mixing error)
    • Some vitamins in active from are not stable
  16. Thiamin
    • Vit B1
    • First vit. discovered (beriberi)
  17. Thiamin Functions
    • Vit B1
    • Active as thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)
    • Carb and lipid metabolism
    • Conenzymes involved in pentose phosphate pathway and citric acid cycle: generation of ATP and hexose monophosphate shunt
  18. Riboflavin functions
    • B2
    • Transfer of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions (ie. from NADH to heme)
  19. Niacin
    • B3
    • Nicotine acid + vitamin
    • Discovered by oxidation of nicotine
    • Is not nicotine
  20. Niacin function
    • B3
    • Essential component of enzyme co-substrate
    • NAD - ATP production
    • NADP - reducing agent
  21. Pyridoxine
    Vitamin B6, several vitamers
  22. Pyridoxine functions
    • B6
    • Pyridoxal phosphate is a coenzyme
    • breaks bonds of alpha carbon in amino acids
    • Glycogen phosphorylase
  23. Pantothenic acid
    • From Greek pantos (everywhere)
    • Present in almost all foods
  24. Panothenic acid function
    • Component of coenzyme A (CoA)
    • -essential for the production of energy from carbs, fat and protein
    • Compent of acyl carrier protein (ACP)
    • -fatty acid synthesis (delivers 2-C units)
  25. Biotin
    Cell growth, metabolism of fats and Amino Acids, hair and skin
  26. Biotin functions
    • Covalently bonds to several enzymes
    • Corboxylases: transfer of CO2: gluconeogensis, metabolism of AA, FA synthesis
  27. Folic Acid
    • Pteroylglutamic acid
    • Folate = Folic acid = Folacin
    • Multiple forms
    • From Latin folium (leaf) green
  28. Folic acid function
    • Transfer of 1-C units
    • Nucleic acid synthesis
    • Vitamin B12 metabolism
    • Interconversion of AA
    • Tetrahydrofolate
  29. Cobalamins
    • Vitamin B12
    • 6 different forms, 2 active
    • stored in liver for long period
  30. Cobalamins function
    • Vit B 12
    • 3 enzymatic reactions
    • Metabolisms of propionate, AA, single C reactions
  31. Absorbic Acid
    • Vit C
    • Required by few species: humans, apes, guinea pigs, red-vented bulbul, fruit-eating bats, a species of trout
  32. Absorbic Acid function
    • Vit C
    • Enzyme cofactor
    • Electron transport
    • Collagen synthesis
    • Drug metabolism
    • Increased iron absorption
    • Metal ion metabolism
    • Immune function
    • Antioxidant functions
    • Reducing agent
    • Cofacter for oxyginase
  33. Energy releasing B vitamins
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Panthothenic acid
    • Biotin
    • Pyridoxine
  34. Hematopietic
    • Folic acid
    • Cobalamin
    • Pyridoxine
    • Pantothenic acid
  35. Other
    • Folic acid
    • Niacin
    • Pyroidoxine
    • Cobalamin
    • Thiamin
  36. Supplemenation
    • Monogastrics, supplement
    • Ruminants, depends on diet
  37. Vitamin content of feed
    • Depends on type/quality of feed
    • Content/availability
  38. Premixs
    • Assure a ready supply of essential vitamins
    • generally a synthetic form of vitamins

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