Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong.
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
The second stage or moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Piaget's concept of the childhood expectation that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory. At this level, morality is often focused on reward and punishment. The two stages in preconventional reasoning are punishment and obedience orientation and individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange.
The second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards (internal) but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society (external).
At this stage in Kohlberg's moral development, moral thinking is often tied to punishment.
Punishment and obedience orientation
In this stage of Kohlberg's theory, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same. Thus what is right involves an equal exchange. People are nice to others so that others will be nice to them in return.
Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
In this stage of Kohlberg's theory, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalit to others as a basis of moral judgement.
Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
The fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory, where moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice and duty.
Social systems morality
The third and highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, morality is more internal.
In this stage of Kohlberg's theory, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law. A person evaluates the validity of actual laws and examines oscial systems in terms of the degree to which they preserve and protect human rights and values.
Social contract or utility and individual rights
In thie stage of Kohlberg's theory, individuals have developed a moral standard based on universal human rights. When faced with a conflict between law and conscious, the person will follow conscience, even though the decision may involve person risk.
Universal ethical principles
Why has Kohlberg's theory been criticized?
Too much emphasis on moral thought, too little on moral behavior.
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions.
The moral perspectives of Carol Gilligan, in which people are assessed in terms of their connectedness with others and the quality of their interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
Focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus, as opposed to moral reasoning that stresses ethical issues.
Social conventional reasoning
The theory that distinguishes between moral competence and moral performance.
Social cognitive theory of morality
Include what individuals are capable of doing, what they know, their skills, their awareness of moral rules and regulations, and their cognitive ability to construct behaviors.
Determined by motivation and the rewards and incentives to act in a specific and moral way.
Reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings.
The ability to discern another's inner psychological states.
The young infant's empathic response in which clear boundaries between the feelings and needs of the self and those of another have not yet been established.
The aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives.
Involves having the strength of hyour convictions, persisting, and overcoming distractions and obstacles.
People who have lived extraordinary lives. Emphasizes the development of personality, identity, character, and virtue to a level that reflects moral excellence and commitment.
A discipline technique in which a prent witholds attention or love from the child in an effort to control the child's behavior.
A discipline technique in which the parent attempts to gain control over the child or the child's resources.
A discipline technique in which a parent uses reasoning and explains how the child's actions are likely to affect others.
The pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes each school
A direc moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic "moral literacy" to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others.
Helping people clarify their sense of purpose in life and what is worth working for.
Education based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
Cognitive moral education
A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
An unselfish interest in helping another person.
Everyone is treated the same.
Giving extra rewards for hard work
Giving special consideration to individuals in a disadvantaged condition
An aspect of prosocial behavior that occurs when an injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation
A feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone doing something kind or helpful
Age-inappropriate actions and attitude that violate family expectations, society's norms, and the personal or property rights of others.
Refers to a great variety of behaviors by an adolescent, ranging from unacceptable behavior to breaking the law.
Criminal acts, such as robbery, rape, and homicide, whether they are committed by juveniles or adults.
Juvenile offenses, performed by youth under a specified age, that are not as serious as index offenses. May include things such as underage drinking, truancy, and sexual promiscuity.
Youth on this pathway showed stubborness prior to age 12, the nmoved on to defiance and avoidance of authority
This pathway included minor covert acts, such as lying, followed by property damage and moderately serious delinquency, then serious delinquency.
This pathway included minor aggression followed by fighting and violence.