Adjusting the level of parental uidance to fit the child's efforts, alloing children to be more skillful than they would be if they relied only on their own abilities.
The bidirectional process by which children socialize parents just as parents socialize them.
The setting in which the individual lives, such as a family, the world of peers, schools, work, and so on.
Consists of links between microsystems, such as the connection between the family process and peer relations
Consists of influences from another setting that the individual does not experience directly, such as how parents' experiences at work might affect their parenting at home.
The culture in which the individual lives, such as a nation or an ethnic group.
Increased numbers of working mothers, divorced parents, and stepparent families in the United States are all a part of the...
Each person's behavior depends on the partner's previous behavior.
Concept that adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents another one; understanding how these trajectories mesh is important.
Multiple developmental trajectories
Monitor their children's emotions, view their children's negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions, and help them in how to deal effectively with emotions.
View their role as to deny, ignore, or change their child's negative emotions.
Effective parenting involves responding in such a manner that the child develops a sense of security and perceives being comforted.
This domain is not involved when the child is distressed but rather when the parent and child are interacting on an equal basis as partners.
In this domain, interactions between parents and children typically involve conflict because parents want one thing and children another. Often activated when children mixbehave. In such circumstances, parents can use their power advantage to discourage the misbehavior through various means of reasoning, social isolation, or physical punishment.
In this domain, parents guide children's learning of skills through the use of effective strategies and feedback.
In this domain, socialization involves increasing children's participation in cultural practices.
A restrictive, punitive style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to respect their work and effort. Firm limits and controls are placed on the child, and little verbal exchange is allowed. Associated with children's social incompetence, including lack of initiative and weak communication skills.
This style encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. This style is associated with children's social competence, including being achievement-oriented and self-reliant.
A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life. It is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control and poor self-esteem.
A style in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. This is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control and a lack of respect for others.
Support parents provide for each other in jointly raising children
Characterized by the infliction of physical injury as result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming the child.
Characterized by failure to provide for the child's basic needs. Neglect can be physical, educational, or emotional. The most common type of child maltreatment.
Includes fondling the child's genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism, and commercial exploitation.
Includes acts or omissions by parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems.