Clinical Nutrition Final Review

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  1. These types of vitamins:
    -are absorbed directly into the blood
    -travel freely
    -circulate freely in water-filled parts of the body
    -kidneys detect and remove excess in urine
    -possible to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements
    -needed in frequent doses (1-3 days)
    Water-solube Vitamins (B's & C)
  2. Beriberi is associated with deficiency of what vitamin?
    B1 / Thiamin
  3. Cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth (cheilosis), inflamed eyelids, and sensitivity to light is due to the deficiency of which vitamin?
    B2 / Riboflavin
  4. -causes vasodilation and flushing
    -known to lower serum LDL levels
    -Pellagra is associated with deficiency of this
    What vitamin is this?
    B3 / Niacin
  5. What are the four D’s of Pellagra?
    • Diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
    • Death
  6. -Microcytic anemia is most often exacerbated by this deficiency
    -sometimes used to treat Carpal Tunnel
    What vitamin is this?
    B6 / Pyroxidine
  7. This vitamin is recommended for women of childbearing age because it reduces the risk of neural tube defects.
    • B9 / Folate
    • *B9 can mask a B12 deficiency
  8. -Reduced gastric secretions of intrinsic factor lead to decreased absorption of this vitamin, which may result in Pernicious Anemia
    -Deficiency of this vitamin can result in permanent nerve damage
    What vitamin is this?
    B12 / Cyanocobalamine
  9. -Deficiencies of these two vitamins may result in macrocytic anemia
    -These two are important in cell division and DNA synthesis
    Which vitamins are these?
    B9, 12
  10. Deficiency of which vitamins may raise serum homocysteine levels?
    B6, 9, 12
  11. -Deficiency of this vitamin causes Scurvy
    -is an antioxidant
    -is important in the synthesis of collagen
    What vitamin is this?
  12. These types of vitamins:
    -are absorbed first into the lymph, then the blood
    -many require protein carriers
    -stored in cells associated with fat
    -less readily excreted; tend to remain in fat-storage sites
    -likely to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements
    -needed in periodic doses (weeks to months)
    Fat-soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K)
  13. -Rhodopsin, a light sensitive pigment in the retina, is made up of opsin and this
    -Night blindness is associated with deficiency of this
    -Impaired immunity correlates with deficiency of this in children, especially in developing nations
    -is necessary to build bone proteins
    Vitamin A
  14. -The body can make this from a derivative of cholesterol with the help of UV radiation from the sun, liver and kidneys
    -facilitates intestinal absorption of calcium and
    -Ricketts is associated with deficiency of this
    What vitamin is this?
  15. Which two vitamins are responsible for protein synthesis and cell differentiation?
    • A
    • D
  16. These two hormones increase blood concentrations of calcium
    • Vitamin D
    • PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  17. -Results from a meta-analysis from John’s Hopkins that taking daily dosages of this may increase the risk of death
    -protects polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A from oxidizing
    What vitamin is this?
  18. -the chief functions of this is the synthesis of blood clotting proteins
    -Deficiency of this can cause uncontrolled bleeding
    -is necessary to build the bone proteins that bind
  19. The chief function of these two vitamins is mineralization of bone
    • D (absorption side)
    • K (mineralization side)
  20. -Increases risk of heart attack
    -principle mineral in bones and teeth
    -involved in muscle contraction, nerve functioning and blood clotting
    -bone is a vast reservior of this
    What mineral / supplement is this?
    Calcium / Ca2+
  21. -involved in the formation of hemoglobin
    -Deficiency poses microcytic hypochromic anemia
    -Overload is associated with hemochromatosis
    -Pica may result when there is a deficiency of this
    -Serum ferritin is an accurate measure the body’s store of this
    What mineral / supplements is this?
    Iron / Fe
  22. What mineral when taken in excess can cause diarrhea?
    Magnesium / Mg
  23. Overconsumption of foods containing this mineral such as found in meat and soda, may result in osteoporosis, because it inhibits the formation of mature vitamin D?
    Phosphorus / P
  24. Three minerals have been used for the treatment of hypertension, what are they?
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
  25. -is involved in function of transporting vitamin A and necessary for immunity
    -is involved in taste perception and wound healing
    What mineral / supplement is this?
    Zinc / Zn
  26. -is involved in liver detoxification
    -functions as an antioxidant
    What mineral / supplement is this?
    Selenium / Se
  27. Which mineral is part of the thyroid hormones?
    Iodine / I
  28. Which mineral helps to makes teeth resistant to decay?
    Fluoride / F
  29. What mineral help insulin do its job?
    Chromium / Cr
  30. Almost 50% of people with hypertension respond favorably to restricting what?
    Sodium / Na
  31. Aside from sodium, others respond favorably to restricting what?
    Chloride / Cl
  32. -Abnormal immune response to gluten, a protein in wheat, barley, and rye
    -Consequences: severe damage to intestinal mucosa / villi, malabsorption
    -a genetic disease
    -Symptoms: abdominal bloating and pain, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, pale foul-smelling or fatty stool, weight loss, irritability in children, possible iron-deficient anemia, fatigue, itchy rash / dermatitis herpetiformis
    Celiac Disease
  33. What can be diagnosed when the patient has upper abdominal pain and it radiates to the back, nausea, vomiting, elevated serum amylase and lipase?
    • Pancreatitis
    • *Chronic Pancreatitis: Don’t drink alcohol, small frequent meals, low fat diet, no smoking or alcoholic beverages
  34. This disease is made worse by fatty and greasy foods that may occur after a meal, may cause jaundice, and affects the liver?
  35. Chronic and recurring intestinal symptoms include diarrhea and constipation, but can be explained by  specific physical abnormalities.
    What condition is this?
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  36. -Pebble sized outpockets of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall
    -These are more common in the sigmoid colon, which is a common place for increased pressure
    -treatment by gradually increasing fiber if not an acute state
    What condition is this?
  37. Right lower quadrant pain with bloody diarrhea, skip lesions?
    Crohn’s Disease
  38. Black and tarry stools are a sign of?
    GI bleeding
  39. -Post-surgery, patient should limit the amount of sugars in the diet to avoid Dumping syndrome.
    -Recommended after surgery: Small meals, fiber to delay stomach emptying , liquids between meals
    -Malabsorption likely to occur Post-surgery
  40. Eliminate foods that are acidic, hot / spicy / fatty foods, very hot or very cold foods, chocolate, smoking, alcohol.
    What condition are these recommendations for?
  41. Small frequent meals, avoid alcohol, caffeine, spicy, greasy, fatty foods, no smoking.
    What condition are these recommendations for?
    Peptic Ulcer Diseases (PUD)
  42. What are some causes of acute erosive gastritis?
    • H. pylori
    • NSAIDs / aspirin
    • alcohol abuse
  43. What are recommendations for patients with Atrophic Gastritis?
    check B12 levels
  44. Get calcium from non-milk sources (fish cooked with bones still in), yogurt, hard cheese, spinach.
    What condition are these recommendations for?
    Lactose Intolerance
  45. Gradually increase fiber intake, adequate fluid intake, exercise daily.
    What condition are these recommendations for?
  46. -This is the most common life-threatening genetic disorder amoung Caucasians
    -Unusually viscious exocrine secretions
    -Complications involve lungs, pancreas, sweat glands
    -respiratory involvement, thick mucus blocks digestive enzymes form the pancreas to the intestines and the absorption of protein, fats and fat-solube vitamins is impaired
    What condition is this?
    Cystic Fibrosis
Card Set:
Clinical Nutrition Final Review
2012-12-12 16:19:43

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