ch. 29 bio

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  1. pain receptors
    sense pain
  2. thermorecptors
    sense temperature; some sense hot temps, some cold temps
  3. mechanorecptors
    stimulated by some sort of mechanical energy; some sense pressure, some sense sounds, some sense equilibrium
  4. stretch receptors
    sense how far muscles have moved; invovled in the patellar reflex kick
  5. electromagnetic receptors
    sense electricity and or magnetic fields
  6. chemoreceptors
    sense chemicals; some sense tast and some smell
  7. photorecptors
    sense light; found only in the eyeball
  8. hearing
    hairs in the cochlea bend in response to sound waves
  9. pinna 
    outer ear
  10. tympanic membrane
    amplifies sound waves; eardrum
  11. eustachian tube
    connects middle ear to throat; equalizes pressure in ears
  12. malleous, incus and stapes
    ear bones that amplifiy and transfer vibrations to cochlea
  13. pitch
    frequency of the vibration; bass v. soprano; measured in hertz
  14. loudness
    magnitude of the sound vibrations; measured in decibels
  15. hearing aids
    amplify sound coming to the eardrum
  16. cochlear implants
    convert sounds to electronic signals; imitates cochlear hairs
  17. equlibrium
    hairs in the semicircular canals bend in response to movement
  18. semicircular canals
    3 tubes at right angles to each other; bending hairs create acton potentials
  19. vestibule
    place where 3 semicircular canals come together
  20. vistibularcochlear nerve
    transmits equilibrium and hearing nerve impulses to the brain
  21. motion sickness
    overactive haris in semicircular canals due to movement
  22. vertigo
    overactive hairs in the semicircular canals due to movement
  23. ophthalamogist
    medical doctor plus extra training; can do eye surgeries and corrective lenses
  24. optometrist
    doctor of optometry; can only prescribe corrective lenses
  25. optician
    associate degree of opticinary; makes glasses
  26. cornea
    transparent, front part of eye
  27. conjunctiva
    one cell layer thick covering on eyeball and inside of eyelids
  28. pinkeye
    irritation of conjunctiva, often from bacterial infection
  29. sclera
    white part of eye
  30. iris
    colored part of eye
  31. pupil
    hole in the iris; lets in more or less light
  32. lens
    behind pupil; can change shape to focus light on retina
  33. ciliary muscle
    contracts to change shape of lense
  34. suspensory ligaments
    attached to ciliary muscles and lens; actuall pulls on lens
  35. aqueous humor
    gel like substance in front portio of eye
  36. vitreous humor
    gel like substance in back portio of eye
  37. vision
    light is focused on the retina
  38. retina
    layer of photorecptors inside of eyeball; consists of rods and cones
  39. rods
    black and white vison; need relatiely little light
  40. cones
    color vision; red, blue,a nd green ; needs lots of light
  41. fovea
    area of retina with hight concentration of cones
  42. optic nerve
    takes the light messages from the rods and cones to the brain
  43. blind spot
    where optic nerve leaves the eye and there is no retina
  44. astigmatism
    rough lens or cornea; light doesn't focus right on retina
  45. myopia
    nearsighted; long eyeball; focus is in front of retina
  46. hyperopia
    farsighted; short eyeball; foucs is behind retina
  47. normal vision
    20/20; you see at 20 feet what most people see at 20 feet
  48. nearsighted
    you can see close things; long eyeball; 20/30 you see at 20 feet what othrs see at 30 feet
  49. lasik
    uses laser to remove part of eyeball
  50. farsighted
    can see well far away; short eyeball; 20/10 you can see at 20 feet what most people can see at 10
  51. colorblind
    missing one or more types of cones, usually red; more common in males
  52. glaucoma
    excessive pressure in eyeball
  53. floaties
    looks like pieces of lint floating across your eye; more common as you get older; from the vitreous humor pulling away from retina
  54. detatched retina
    retina layer comes off back of eyeball
  55. images are
    upside down and backward when they reach retina
  56. smell
    different neuron for each diffent odor
  57. the more surface area the smell dendrites are exposed to, the
    more sensitive they are
  58. smell adapts
    pretty quickly
  59. olfactory nerves
    smell nerve
  60. taste
    composed of varying amounts of 4 different chemicals
  61. papillae
    taste buds; where taste dendrites are
  62. filiform papillae
    other bumps on tongue which don't contribute to taste
  63. some tastes are
  64. hot, spicy food are
    not sensed by taste buds
  65. pain receptors (taste)
    sense how spicy food is
  66. taste buds 
    decay with age
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ch. 29 bio

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