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  1. A learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding, with guidance from the teacher.
    Constructivist approach
  2. A teacher-centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic material, high expectations for stuents' progress, and maximum time spent on learning tasks.
    Direct learning approach
  3. Education htat involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and the child's needs, interests and learning styles.
    Child-centered kindergarten
  4. An educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing acitivites and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire.
    Montessori approach
  5. Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child. 
    Developmentally appropriate practicw
  6. Relies on abstract paper-and-pencil activities presented to large groups of young children
    Developmentally inappropriate practice
  7. Compensatory education designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success.
    Project Head Start
  8. Established in 1995 to serve children from birth to 3 years of age.
    Early Head Start
  9. The circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the lowest position in middle or junior high school.
    Top-dog phenomenon
  10. Researchers have found that participation in what is linked to higher grades, increased school engagement, reduced likelihood of dropping out of school, improved ability of going to college, higher self-esteem, and lower rates of depression.
    Extracurricular activites
  11. Disabilities involving understanding or using spoken or written language. The difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, spelling, or mathematics.
    Learning disabilities
  12. A category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
  13. A learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting
  14. Also known as developmental artihmetic disorder; a learning disability that involves dificulty in math computation.
  15. A disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristcs: Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
  16. Serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression depression, fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics.
    Emotional and behavioral disorders
  17. A severe developmental autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships; abnormalities in communication; and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
    Autistic disorder
  18. A relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal skills, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships.
    Asperger syndrome
  19. A written statement that spells out a program tailored to the needs of a child with a disability.
    Individualized education program
  20. The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is similar to classrooms in which children without a disability are educated.
    Least restrictive environment
  21. Educating a child with special educational needs full-time in the regular classroom
  22. Responses to external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
    Extrinsic motivation
  23. Internal motivational factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challange and effort.
    Intrinsic motivation
  24. An orientation in which one is task oriented, focusing on learning strategies, and the achievement process rather thanthe ability or the outcome.
    Mastery motivation
  25. An orientation in which one seems trapped by the experience of difficulty and attributes one's difficulty to a lack of ability.
    Helpless orientation
  26. An orientation in which one focuses on winning rather than achievement outcomes, and happiness is thought to result from winning.
    Performance orientation
  27. Dweck's concept that refers to the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves.
  28. People believe that their qualities are carved in stone and cannot change.
    Fixed mindset
  29. People believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort
    Growth mindset
  30. The belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes.
Card Set:

Schools and Achievement
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