Radiology Final

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Radiology Final
2012-12-11 00:48:03

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  1. standards for medical privacy
  2. non-compliance of HIPAA results in
    $100.00 fine per violation
  3. thought disease was a punishment from the gods
  4. Four humors of the Greeks
    • phlegm
    • blood
    • yellow bile
    • black bile
  5. Who influenced Hebrew medicine?
  6. Egyptians believed ___ to be center with all channels going there.
  7. Egyptians had ___ associated with health, illness, and death.
  8. Egyptians linked anatomy and physiology with ____.
  9. When an Egyptian died, they practiced ___.
  10. believed in the eternal cycle of creation, preservation, and destruction
  11. How did India test for diabetes?
    tasting urine
  12. balance of life believed by ancient chinese
    yin and yang
  13. Chinese believed illness resulted from disregard of ___.
  14. Forbade the invasion of the body
  15. Five methods of Chinese treatment
    • cure the spirit
    • nourish the body
    • give medications
    • treat whole body
    • acupuncture
  16. Built statues of healing gods in temple with healing water pools
  17. father of medicine
  18. "do no harm"
    Hippocratic Oath
  19. Hippocrates taught that medical professionals should:
    • observe overall
    • study patient, not disease
    • evaluate honestly
    • assist nature
  20. First medical schools were established separate from the __.
    Christian church
  21. spread through Europe and killed nearly 20% of population
    Bubonic Plague
  22. The first hospital was built in the time of ___
  23. Age of Scientific Revolution
  24. made laws of motion
  25. discovered gravity
  26. established temperature measurement
  27. founded the smallpox vaccine
  28. Anatomy and physiology were related during the ___.
    18th century
  29. The 18th century brought better care for ___.
    mentally ill patients
  30. discovered bacteria as the origin of disease
  31. founder of genetics
  32. date of first x-ray discovery in Germany
    November 8, 1895
  33. During the 20th century, film was replaced by ___.
    digital radiography
  34. state of complete physical, mental, and social well being
  35. pattern of response of a living organism to injury
  36. death rate
  37. occurrence of disease
  38. three leading causes of death in US
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • stroke
  39. widespread in a certain area
  40. worldwide
  41. diseases of infectious origin whose incidence has grown in past two decades or is projected to in near future
    emerging infectious disease
  42. 4 goals of the CDC
    • detect, investigate, monitor
    • optimize public health
    • enhance communication
    • strengthen local, state, and federal prevention and control
  43. discovered the electric current by moving magnets in and out of coils
  44. discovered streams of electrons emitted from cathode
  45. evacuated tube
    Crookes tube
  46. studied cathode rays and used wheel to demonstrate
    William Crookes
  47. found cathode rays could penetrate metal
  48. ___ began to glow when Roentgen discovered the xray.
  49. Discovered the first x-ray in Germany
    William Roentgen
  50. First radiograph was of ___.
    Roentgen's wife's hand
  51. attempted to explain xrays early in the discovery
    Thomas Edison
  52. ___ and ____ used xrays for entertainment.
    circuses and department stores
  53. Discovered the xray in the US
    Michael Pupin
  54. Date of xray discovery in US
    January 2, 1896
  55. discovered fluoroscopy
    Thomas Edison
  56. Thomas Edison stopped his experiments when ___.
    his assistant died
  57. discovered that radium killed diseased cells- radiation therapy
    Pierre Curie
  58. developed mobile xray for military use
    Marie Curie
  59. Army school to train technicians during WWII
    Army School of Roentgenology
  60. branch of radiology using radioactive materials for medical diagnosis and treatment
    nuclear radiology
  61. inveneted cyclotron
  62. made radioisotopes available in large quantities
  63. discovered chain reaction in uranium
  64. Lawrence and Fermi together had the recipe for the ___.
    atomic bomb
  65. Social forces that affect health care
    • aging population
    • increased health costs
    • increased birth rates
  66. sets rate for certain procedures with no negotiation, such as Medicare and Medicaid
    Prospective payment system (PPS)
  67. certain hospitals that offer all medical care for only a monthly fee
    Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
  68. negotiates fees with hospitals
    Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO)
  69. Four responsibilites of the technologist
    • interact with patients
    • establish caring and empathetic atmosphere
    • treat patient as guest
  70. being timely is being __.
  71. performing as best as possible is performing ___
  72. overview of imaging, rad tec, and healthcare system
    intro to rads
  73. moral, legal, and professional responsibilites learned in __.
    medical ethics and law
  74. routines for procedures over two semesters
    radiographic procedures
  75. learning to use ionizing radiation in a safe manner
    Principles of radiation protection
  76. ALARA
    as low as resonably possible
  77. various disease conditions that may affect the image
  78. dealwith a patient's health condition such as charts, IVs, catheters, and wheelchairs
    methods of patient care
  79. regulations the govern the field
    quality assurance
  80. physical properties of radiation, and how it is produced, measured, and used
    radiation physics
  81. hazardous effects of radiation on living tissue
  82. lecture learning
  83. how well one works with others, meets patient needs, and shows good attitudes, values, and feelings
    affective learning
  84. hands on phase testing anatomy, imaging, etc
    psychomotor learning
  85. observations, learning where to go and who to answer to
    passive participation
  86. test in whcih a student performs an exam unassisted and is tested for all areas
    competency evaluations
  87. Seven criteria for performance evaluations and examples
    • evaluation of requistion- pt history, procedure, name
    • physical facility readiness- set up to ensure comformtable
    • patient/tech relations- selest patient, assist/move, modesty, instruct, interact
    • positioning skills
    • equipment manipulation
    • radiation protection- shield all people
    • image evaluation- ID anatomy, pros/cons of image
  88. If a tech is asked what they say on an image, they should respond that they must ask ___.
    the referring physician
  89. N/V/D
  90. LP
    lumbar puncture
  91. DM
    diabetes mellitis
  92. MVA
    motor vehicle accident
  93. DC
  94. AMA
    against medical advice
  95. DNR
    do not resusitate
  96. Fx
  97. GSW
    gun shot wound
  98. HA
  99. LOC
    level of consciousness
  100. NKDA
    no known drug alleriges
  101. FB
    foreign body
  102. PACU/ PAR
    post anesthesia care unit/ recovery
  103. a
  104. CVA
    cerbral vascular accident
  105. AMI
    acute myocardial infarction
  106. bid
    twice daily
  107. BM
    bowel movement
  108. BRP
    bathroom priveleges
  109. bx
  110. c
  111. s
  112. CA
  113. CBC
    complete blood count
  114. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  115. c/o
    complaint of
  116. dx
  117. pt
  118. PT
    physical therapy
  119. f/u
    follow up
  120. fuo
    fever of unknown origin
  121. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux diseases
  122. HTN
  123. hx
  124. LMP
    last menstrual period
  125. NPO
    nothing by mouth
  126. po
    by mouth (per os)
  127. prn
    as needed
  128. qid
    four times daily
  129. SOB
    shortness of breath
  130. sx
  131. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  132. tid
    three times a day
  133. Tx
  134. w/c
  135. Three items needed for the production of an xray
    • source of electrons
    • means to accelerate
    • way to bring to sudden stop
  136. most important item in xray production
    xray tube
  137. positive part of the xray tube that receives electrons
  138. negative part of xray tube that is the source of electons
  139. An xray tube produces %___ and %___.
    99% heat; 1%xrays
  140. xrays exit tube through ___
  141. advantages of digital imaging
    • post processing
    • manipulate density and contrast
    • eliminate overhead fluoro
    • images can be transferred
  142. image not visible until run through lazers which neutralizes phosphors
    computer digital imaging
  143. imaging plate in tube or wall and the phosphors are directly to monitor
    direct digital imaging
  144. Phosphors in the intensifying screen give off %__ and %___.
    95% light; 5% xrays
  145. locked in a cassette
  146. provides live action view of interior of body
  147. Process of fluoroscopic procedures
    • image intensifier enhances image
    • sent to TV monitor
    • image post processed and saved
  148. proves cross sectional views of the body to make a 3D image and eliminate exploratory surgery
    computed tomography
  149. cross sectional views of the body without using ionizing radiation
    magnetic resonance imaging
  150. MRIs use ___ and ___ to make images.
    magnetic field; radiowaves
  151. uses radiopharmaceutical injections to evaluae physiology of an organ or system with cross sectional images
    positron emission tomography
  152. radioactive material introduced through IV to produce images of major organs when the material concentrates and emits radiation in the area
    nuclear medicine
  153. used in surgers for immediate fluoroscopic image
    C arm
  154. xray tube adn film set in motion in opposite directions so that images are blurred around area of interest
  155. advantage of tomography
    can see structures that would normally appear hidden
  156. high frequency sound waves and non ionizing radiation for cross sectional images
  157. evaluates blood flow through arteries or veins
  158. brings digital imaging together with hospital and radiology systems so patient files can be accessed from any station
  159. removing anything from the patient that may obscure the image
    external prep
  160. cleansing and preventing further dirtying in a patient before a procedure
    internal prep
  161. solutions or gases introduced into the body to provide a difference between organ and surrounding tissues
    contrast media
  162. three types of contrast media
    • iodine
    • barium
    • air
  163. contrast with highest atomic number making it the hardest for xrays to penetrate and may cause reactions in some patients
  164. medium of choice that cannot be absorbed by the body, but should not be used when there is a bowel perforation
  165. contrast used primarily in chest xrays because it is easily penetrated
  166. xrays that require multiple views and are difficult to perform
    skull and head
  167. most commonly radiographed region
    thoracic cavity
  168. require at least two views for a procedure at right angles from one another
  169. may require two views at right angles to one another and a fourty-five degree oblique view
  170. Most ___ exams are fluoroscopic CTs
  171. Contrast used during an esophagram and how it is used
    barium- pt drinks it
  172. procedure to evaluate small intestine in which the abdomen is xrayed for an hour to see the progression of the barium ingested
    small bowel follow through
  173. exam of the colon in which an air contrast is used
    barium enema
  174. used to reduce cramping in a barium enema
  175. study of the bladder to evaluate urination
  176. performed with a scope through the esophagus to the small intestine to diagnose abnormalities in the biliary system or pancreas
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  177. iodine based contrast procedure to see arteries
  178. iodine contrast procedure to see joint space
  179. destroys kidney or ureter stones by using sonic shock waves
  180. procedure requiring multiple views and using high contrast film and special cassettes
  181. water or iodine procedure to see the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord
  182. Who orders exams?
  183. Jobs of a radiographer
    • evaluate order
    • greet patient
    • position pt
    • set exposure
    • take image
    • process film
  184. made of polyester covered in emulsion
  185. What encases phosphors in computer radiography?
  186. ___ is minimized in digital radiography by increasing contrast.
  187. where manipulation of an image occurs
    control panel
  188. amount of xrays produced and penetrating power are affected by __
  189. ___ controls contrast
  190. xray exposure rate directly proportional to time
  191. mA and time control ___
  192. mAs should be kept ___
    low as possible
  193. product of time and milliamperage that determines quantity of radiation
  194. degree of blackening on an area of the processed image
  195. density surrounding the image
    background density
  196. produced by primaty, secondary, and scattered radiation that penetrates the part and exposes film
    image density
  197. Densities in the body from least dense to most dense
    gas- fat- muscle- bone- metal
  198. thickness of the part being examined
    subject thickness
  199. differences in densities between two areas on a radiograph
  200. contrast inherent in the anatomic part being imaged to show variation
    subject contrast
  201. abrupt changes from black to white with few shades of gray and low kVp
    short scale/ high contrast
  202. gradual changes from black tow hite with many shades of gray and high kVp
    long scale/ low contrast
  203. false representation of true shape of object
  204. enlargement of object controlled by OID and SID
  205. Contributing factors to distortion and magnification
    • beam alightment
    • Object to image distance
    • source to image distance
  206. built in and inherent in computer construction to show lines and contours of an image
  207. greatest factor affecting detail of a radiograph
    patient motion
  208. standing erect, forward, arms at sides, palms up
    anatomic position
  209. plane diving the body into left and right halves
  210. plane dividing body between anterior and posterior halves
  211. plane that slants through the pt
    oblique plane
  212. divdes body into top and bottom halves
    horizontal plane
  213. Nine regions of the abdoment
    • right hypocondrium- epigastrium- left hypochondrium
    • right lateral- umbillical- left lateral
    • right inguinal- hypogastrium- left inguinal
  214. towards the head
  215. towards the feet
  216. moving the arm away from the body
  217. moving the arm towards the body
  218. palm side down
  219. palm side up
  220. spine bent forward
  221. spine in normal position
  222. spine bends too far backwards
  223. move toes towards middle
  224. move towards away
  225. turn hand away from the radius
    radial deviation
  226. turn hand around from ulna
    ulnar deviation
  227. path of CR as it exits xray tube and goes through patient to IR
  228. identigies overall posture of pt or general body
  229. xray skims the surface
    tangential projection
  230. position in which person is laying on side
    lateral decubitus
  231. center ray enters and exits at a straight line
    axial projection
  232. supine with head tilted down and feet hight than head
  233. supine with head higher than feet
  234. lean back while upright so only shoulders touch IR
  235. outlined expected behaviors of RTs to ensure right people in the program and do what they should
    standards of conduct
  236. How is the healthcare profession a service?
    provides service to sick population
  237. A good RT is one with a combinatin of ___ and ___ applied in a ___ and ___ manner, who works in harmony with ____.
    knowledge; skills; caring; compassionate; hospital personnel
  238. Four interpersonal relationships developed in educational experience
    • instructors
    • physicians
    • radiologists
    • team of RT
  239. RTs and ___ are part of team to provide services for diagnese and care for patients and doctors.
    image department
  240. Patient attitude is usually ________.
    not happy, worried, scared
  241. What influences an attitude?
    caring, positive, understanding approach
  242. very important patient right that is the responsibility of the RT
  243. How is patient modesty accomplished?
    drapes, close doors, covers
  244. Examples of effective communication
    • verbal
    • facial expression
    • body language
  245. What factors can affect communication?
    • outside emotions
    • recent conversations
  246. Who's needs come first and foremost?
  247. It is important to maintain continuing education because the field of radiology is ___.
    rapidly changing
  248. Students are ___ responsible for actions, but protected by ____ in early stages.
    legally; supervision
  249. After graduation, an RT becomes ___ and ___ responsible for own actions.
    morally ; legally
  250. morals as related to behavior
  251. ___ patients require more time.
  252. What are infants afraid of?
    falling and loud noises
  253. Onfants use ___ for movement and ___ for communication.
    reflexes; facial expressions
  254. Law of Bergonie and Tribondgeau
    cells are most sensitive to radiation when dividing rapidly
  255. Age group that is most critical to protect from overexposure
  256. Age group with a sense of right and wrong and property
    1-3 years
  257. 1-3 year olds can speak in ___ and follow ___
    sentences; instructions
  258. Age group with a sense of self, time, and love and esteem
    3-12 years
  259. Must report ____ if suspected
    child abuse
  260. Communication with 3-12 year olds is ___.
  261. Three things teenagers wants
    • independence
    • identity
    • treated as adult
  262. Diseases may affect 21-45 year olds most emotionally because __________.
    they have families, jobs, etc, that depend on them
  263. Age group that is concerned with maintaining independence and retirement
    45-65 years
  264. Most strongly opinionated age group in most cases
    45-65 years
  265. fasting growing population in the US is ___ years old.
    over 85
  266. Life expectancy in the US
    79 years
  267. ___% of senior citizens are women.
  268. How to treat senior citizens
    gently, respectfully
  269. Must have patient consent to report ____ by nursing homes, etc.
    elder abuse
  270. Senior citizens may talk about ___.
    death and dying
  271. In patient care, the RT must prevent what two things?
    • spread of disease and injury
    • complications of injuries
  272. How many internal policies should an RT use to ID a patient?
  273. identifying factors such as date of birth, bracelet, SS#, etc
    internal policies
  274. who has right to cancel a procedure?
    radiology physician director
  275. carts, wheelchairs, beds, etc
    transport equipment
  276. step stool, IV stands, etc
    ancillary equipment
  277. If involved with patient care, one needs ___ cert.
  278. Patient transfer safety techniques
    • center of gravity
    • base of support
    • bend knees
    • close to body
    • use legs
    • back straight
    • slide pt
  279. blood pressure, pulse, breath rate, temp, all taken in response to institutional policy
    vital signs
  280. An RT must be able to note changes in pt condition by the sense of ___.
  281. room checklist
    emergency carts
  282. hospital acquired diseases
    nosocomial infections
  283. destroys viruses
  284. keeps viruses from growing
  285. Two ways to spread disease
    direct and indirect contact
  286. putting infected patients away from other patients so that disease does not spread, ie measles
    strict isolation
  287. putting susceptible patients, ie burn, chemo, away from sick patients so they do not become ill
    protective isolation
  288. number one most effective way to prevent spread of disease
  289. Five rights of medication administration
    • patient
    • drug
    • route
    • amount
    • time
  290. Optimal care by RTs include
    • radiation safety
    • prevention
    • economic
    • timely
  291. viruses or microorganisms that cause disease
  292. complete removal or destruction of microorganisms
  293. violations of civil law
  294. instilling fear in another
    civil assault
  295. improper action against another
    civil battery
  296. spoken defamation
  297. written defamation
  298. Five types of intentional tort
    • assault
    • battery
    • invasion of privacy
    • defamation
    • false imprisonment
  299. Process by which an unintentional tort must be analyzed
    • What duty was owed
    • breach of duty
    • cause of injury was negligence
    • that the injury occurred
  300. failure to fulfill expected care by reasonable person
  301. Consent can be __, __, or ___, and ______.
    written; oral; implied; revoked at any time
  302. Four valid consent requirements
    • legal age
    • mentally competent
    • voluntary
    • informed patient
  303. Let the master answer
    respondeat superior
  304. requires that an employer pay victim for torts committed by employees
    respondeant superior
  305. the thing speaks for itself
    res ipsa loquitor
  306. the defendant must prove innocence in the case of a negligent suspections
    res ipsa loquitor
  307. degree of excellence
  308. monitors and tests equipment and control of variable
    QA tech
  309. organizational chart for production of a radiograph
    administrative pyramid
  310. How many variables do RTs control?
  311. Three ways of administrative evaluation
    • observation of techs
    • interview patients
    • interview other techs
  312. most complex and complicating factor in pyramid
  313. number one problem in most departments
    film processing
  314. used to expose films precisely so each has same density, chemicals, temp, etc
  315. removes unexposed silver bromide crystals from film to hard it
    fixer solutions
  316. QA techs check:
    • kV
    • mA
    • times
    • focal spot size
    • collimator accuracy
  317. has nearly total control over the radiograph
  318. major cause of exceessive exposure of patients to radiation
    repeats due to positioning errors
  319. How many CE credits required by ARRT?
    24 in a 24 month time
  320. most important part of quality control
  321. acceptance limits are determined by ____
  322. personal standards are determined by ____
    RT or QA tech
  323. Two examples of communication in radiography
    • Dr to tech for explanations
    • Tech to pt for histories
  324. causes damage to living cells
    ionizing radiation
  325. Two sources of radiation
    • natural- atmosphere
    • manmade- xrays
  326. SI unit for exposure
  327. SI unit for absorbed dose
  328. SI unit for dose equivalent
  329. Traditional unit for exposure
  330. traditional unit for absorbed dose
  331. traditional unit for dose equivalent
  332. Function of the NCRP
    radiation protection
  333. xrays are packets of energy called ___
  334. Results when a photon knocks electrons out of orbit
    electrically charged ions
  335. process of ionization results in ___
    transfer of energy
  336. most common type of photon interaction in which an xray is absorbed
    photoelectric effect
  337. Photoelectric effect interacts with ___ electrons
    inner shell
  338. photon interaction in which electrons are scattered and atoms are ionized
    compton scatter
  339. Compton scatter interacts with ___ electrons
    outer shell
  340. source of most occupational exposure
    compton scatter
  341. photon interaction in which xray comes close to nucleaus then disappears
    pair production
  342. Pair production produces a ___ and ___
    positron; electron
  343. Four possible results of radiation on a cell
    • no damage
    • temporary damage
    • no repair
    • kill the cell
  344. external source of radiation
  345. internal source of xrays
  346. accelerates electrons
  347. xrays produced from the tube
    primary radiation
  348. Three best methods of protection
    • time
    • distance
    • shields
  349. Radiation typically used in nuc med or rad therapy that can be ingested inhaled or absorbed
  350. kV should be ___ as possible to reduce skin dose
  351. intensity of beam is inversely proportional to square of distance
    inverse square law
  352. aluminum used to absorb harmful soft radiation
  353. restriction of the primary radiation to a limited area
  354. Best projection exam for shielding
  355. measures staff exposure to radiation
    film badge
  356. ARRT
    American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
  357. provides certification and registration for RT professions
  358. Certification exams
    • radiography
    • rad therapy
    • nuc med
  359. Advanced level exams
    special imaging
  360. ARRT board of trustees
    5 RTs, 4 Drs
  361. ARRT consultants
    one from each discipline
  362. JRCERT
    joint review committee on education in radiologic technology
  363. national accrediting agency by USDE
  364. JRCERT board of directors
    • rad tech
    • radiologist
    • oncologist
    • public
  365. Purpose of the JRCERT
    make sure educational programs meet standard criteria
  366. Accreditation process
    • self study
    • site visit
    • exit interview by vising member
    • JRCERT reports to program
    • program fixes and responds back to JRCERT
    • accreditation
  367. Longest accreditation award
    8 years
  368. Allegation process
    • JRCERT alerts program
    • program responds
    • board decides
  369. Allegations must be made in ___
  370. Why is accreditation important?
    assures public of quality care
  371. ASRT
    American Society of Rad Tech
  372. ASRT House of Delegates
    2 reps from each state
  373. Purposes of ASRT
    • education and CE
    • establish program guidelines
  374. LSRT
    louisiana society of rad tech
  375. Purpose of LSRT
    track CE credits
  376. Puts on two conferences per year for CE opportunities
  377. AHRA
    American Healthcare Radiology Administrators
  378. Three goals of AHRA
    • education
    • maintance of ethics
    • communication
  379. AERS
    Association of Educators in Rad Sciences
  380. ARTS
    Association of Rad Tec Students
  381. includes routine xrays, portables, and surgery
    diagnostic radiography
  382. determine how much radiation will be delivered to a tumor site based on the oncologist's treatment
    medical dosimetrist
  383. CT is most commonly used in ___ situations
  384. measures mineral density and strength
    bone densitometry
  385. advanced level RT
    radiologic assistant
  386. Five things that an RA can do
    • patient assessment
    • education
    • management
    • fluoroscopy and procedures
    • make initial image observations
  387. two things an RA cannot do
    interpret images and make diagnoses
  388. Examples of short term post graduate education
    rad therapy, nuc med, ultrasound, etc
  389. Examples of long term post gra education
    masters/ doctorate
  390. involved in purchases, management, budgets, and planning
    Administrative radiology
  391. Year that formal training for rad educators became recogonized
  392. maintain film badge reports and completes routine checks of equipments
    radiation safety officer
  393. preventive maintenance and repair or equipment
    equipment specialist
  394. train techs on equipment on site
    applications specialist
  395. Two jobs that require a bachelor of science
    applications specialist and sales rep
  396. How often must a tech renew registration with the ARRT?
  397. unit of measurement based on a 50 minute contact hour
    CE credit
  398. alternative means of CE credits
    • advanced level exams
    • societies
    • in service education
    • seminars
    • academic courses
  399. Who does and does not require CE?
    not all states, but ARRT requires regardless
  400. What happens if you do not comply with the ARRT?
    probation or loss of license
  401. RCEEM
    recognized continuing education evaluation mechanisms
  402. CARE Bill
    consumer assurance of radiologic excellence
  403. designed to ensure that qualified personnel perform medical imaging and rad therapy by requiring all states to license
    CARE Bill