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2012-12-10 16:08:44
Unit Four Notes DNA

Maloney's unit four DNA notes
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  1. DNA structure
    twisted ladder aka double helix, sugar/phosphate frame, nitrogenous bases/base pairs as rungs
  2. Four bases
    • Adenine
    • Thymine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
  3. Purines
    A, G
  4. Pyrimidines
    T, C
  5. Base pairs
    • A and T
    • G and C
  6. Nitrogen bases are held together by
    Nitrogen bonds
  7. Steps of replication
    • 1. Helicase unzips double helix
    • 2. Free floating nucleotides fill in with complimentary bases on the exposed DNA strands
    • 3. DNA polymerase fuses free floating nucleotides to complimentary DNA strands
  8. Enzyme
  9. Nucledotides
    Nitrogen base, sugar and phospate floating in nucleus
  10. Polymerase
    A second enzyme needed in replication
  11. DNA contains
    A stored code called the genetic code
  12. Proteins are the
    Key molecules to all the functions in all living organism
  13. Messanger RNA (mRNA)
    Because the DNA can't leave the nucleus it needs an intermediate molecule to take the code from the DNA to the ribosomes
  14. Info about DNA
    • ATGC
    • Double stranded
    • Deoxyribose sugar
    • Very stable
  15. Info about RNA
    • AUGC
    • Single stranded
    • Ribose sugars
    • Unstable
  16. Transcription
    Process of copying DNA into mRNA
  17. Transcription process
    • 1. Cells get signal to make protein
    • 2. DNA where gene is located is unwound/split by DNA helicase
    • 3. One side of the DNA will be transcribed into mRNA
    • 4. Polymerase builds mRNA onto sense strand with complemenatry nucleotides
    • 5. mRNA is complete and mRNA breaks away from the DNA/leaves nucleus, DNA goes back together
  18. Sense Strand
    The side of DNA transcribed into mRNA
  19. Anit-sense strand
    Side not used to make mRNA
  20. Translation
    • 1. mRNA attaches the ribosome at its start codon (AUG)
    • 2. 1st codons exposed
    • 3. Amino acids are floating in the cytoplasm, correct AA needs to get to the ribosome, tRNA brings AA
    • 4. Comp. tRNA (with anti-codon for mRNA) brings correct amino acid
    • 5. 2nd tRNA brings next amino acid
    • 6. First tRNA leaves
    • 7. Ribosomes moves over to expose the next codon
    • 8. Repeats until reachs stop codon
    • 9. Chain released, ribosome/mRNA fall apart
    • 10. Protein sent through ER to the golgi for packaging
  21. tRNA
    Transfer RNA
  22. Number of amino acids
    20 represented by 3 letter abbreciations
  23. Strains of Cholera
    • Classic-rare/treated with cholorine
    • El Tor-Most common/slight resistance to cholorine
    • Bengal-Deadly/Resistant to cholorine
  24. What is Kock's Postulates
    Criteria by which an organism could be determined to be an infectious agent (Pathogen)
  25. Koch's postulates
    • 1. Microorganism present with disease, absent when organism healthy
    • 2. Be able to isolate microorganism
    • 3. Cause disease again when placed in different organism
    • 4. Reisolate from 2nd organism
  26. 3 types of pathogens
    Bacteria, virus, parasites
  27. Bacteria
    Single celled prokaryotic organism. Lack nuclei and mitochondria. Has a cell wall. Found anywhere.
  28. Bacteria is good at
    • Helping animals make vitamins
    • Keep soil fertile
    • Decompose dead matter
    • Help plants get nitrogen
    • Carry out processes that gives us cheese/yogurt
    • Help us digest
  29. Bacterial shapes
    • Spherical
    • Rod shaped
    • Helical or spiral
  30. How to get rid of bacteria
    Antibiotics-creating holes in cel wall
  31. Virusues
    Genetic material surrounded by proteins- not cells! They take over cells
  32. How to get rid of viruses
    No miracle drugs, vaccines and treatments
  33. Parasites
    Organisms that live at the expense of a host by using their nutrients
  34. How parasites harm their hosts
    • 1. Mechanical damage
    • 2. Posining with toxins
    • 3. Robbing host of nutrients
  35. How to treat a parasite
    Drugs primarily interfere with metabolsim of the parasite.
  36. Codon
    unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutive nucleotides  specifies an amino acid.
  37. Anti-codon
    unit of genetic code: a set of three nucleotides in transfer RNA involved in making protein
  38. Peptide bond
    the chemical bond between carbon and nitrogen in a peptide linkage
  39. amino acid
    make up proteins and are important components of cells.
  40. epidemic
    fast-spreading disease
  41. pandemic
    having widespread effect
  42. Tpyes of proteins
    Enzymes, insuline,