Card Set Information
the ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is
how does energy flow in an ecosystem?
producer --> primary consumer --> secondary consumer --> tertiary consumer --> decomposer
what is the general process of natural selection?
conditions in nature select organisms in a population with certain better-suited characteristics that enable them to live and reproduce more offspring
what is natural selection a mechanism for?
What is a hypothesis?
a proposed explanation for a set of observations that must be testable and falsifiable
What is deductive reasoning?
logic that flows from general premises to the specific results we should expect
What is the connection between form and function?
form is the structure or anatomy while the function is what it does. the two work together
What is inductive reasoning
logic taht derives general conclusions from specific observations
What are the four most common elements in living organisms?
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
What is a covalent bond?
the strongest bond, in which two atoms share electrons
What is an ionic bond?
attractions between ions of opposite charge
What is a hydrogen bond?
a weak bond that holds large molecules together with hydrogen
What is adhesion?
the tendency of two different kind of molecules to stick together
What is polarity?
the property of having poles or being polar
What is cohesion?
tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
What is transpiration?
process of plants absorbing water from teh soil and releasing it as vapor through their leaves
What does pH measure?
how acidic or basic a solution is
pH of 0-6 means a solution is
pH measure of 7 means a solution is
pH of 8-14 means a solution is
What are the four organic groups of molecules?
carbs, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
What is the storage form of carbs in plants and animals?
What does hydrophobic mean?
water-fearing or wont dissolve in water
What does hydrophilic mean?
Hydrophilic are polar/nonpolar
Hydrophobic are polar/nonpolar
Are hydrocarbon chains of fat polar/nonpolar
What makes fatty acids unsaturated?
have one or more double bonds
What makes fatty acids saturated?
have the maximum number of hydrogen adams
What makes proteins different?
composted of different arrangements of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
What is the function of enzymes?
metabolic catalysts that raise activation energy
What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophobic?
tails of the phospholipid bilayer
What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophilic?
heads of the phospholipid bilayer
What is a nucleoid?
where DNA of prokaryotic cells is coiled without a membrane around the DNA
What is the major differences between bactereial cells, plant cells, and animal cells?
Bacterial cells are more simple than plant and animal cells and only have a plasma membrane and one or more chromosomes and ribosomes. Also have a nucleoid and no true organells.
Plant/Animal cells are more complicated and have a membrane bound nucleus and many organelles.
Plant cells have walls while animal cells just have membranes.
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER
What does selectively permeable mean?
some substances can cross more easily than others
How are hydrophilic molecules transported through the plasma membrane?
use transport proteins and facilliated diffusion
How are hydrophobic molecules transported through the plasma membrane?
easily passes through the membrane thorugh osmosis
What is the difference between active and passive transport?
active transport requires energy where passive transport does not
What are the forms of active transport?
What are forms of passive transport?
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water
What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
the cell will expand and possibly burst
What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
cell will shrink
What happens to a cell in a isotonic solution?
cell volume won't change
Where does photosynthesis occurs?
Where does cellular respiration occur?
What molecule cells capture energy released by cellular respiration?
What is the overall simplified chemical equation for the cellular respiration of glucose?
What are the stages of cellular respiration?
Citric Acid Cycle
What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic cellular respiration?
What is a heterotroph?
consumers that rely on other things for food
What is an autotroph?
something that makes its own food
What part of the leaf allows the gas exchange?
Why are most plants green?
chlorophyll is located in the chloroplasts
What protects plant cells from harmful effects of reactive molecules?
What molecule do photosynthetic organisms derive carbon from?
What is the genetic difference in asexual and sexual reproduction?
asexual reproduction-identical offspring
sexual-similar to parents but have variations
What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?
mitosis-basic cell divison
meisosis-produces haploid gametes
What basically occurs in each phase of mitosis?
Interphase-basic cell function
Prophase-chromosomes coil, nuceloi disappear, spindle forms
Metaphase-spindle fully form, chromosomes align in middle
Anaphase-chromatids seperate to opposite poles
Telophase-cell elongates, nuclear envelopes form, chromatin uncoil and spindle disappears
What is the law of independent assortment?
inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another
happens in meiosis
What happens in complete dominance?
when offspring looks like one of the parent varieities
What happens in incomplete dominance?
neither allele is dominant over the other and both alleles are expressed
What happens in codominance?
neither allele is dominant over the other, both alleles are expressed and both allels are expressed simultaneously
What is the difference between diploid and haploid cells?
diploid-have two identical sets of chromosomes
haploid-one set of chromosomes, used for sex cells
How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell?
How many chromosomes are in a sex cell?
What does DNA polymerase do?
helps make copies and proofreads and corrects improper base pairings
What is translation?
synthesis of proteins according to RNA
What is transcription?
synthesis of RNA according to DNA
Genetic information is contained in what?
What are nucleic acids made of?
monomers called nucleotides
What is a mutation?
any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
What is an anticodon?
a special triplet of bases at the end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes and binds appropriate codons with mRNA
What are operons?
regulates genes in protein synthesis
What are promoters?
site in a DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA.
What are operators?
segment of DNA where the repressor binds to, thereby preventing the transcription of certain genes.
What are activators?
turn operons on
What are repressors?
bind and block RNA polymerase action
What is RNA interface?
the use of miRNAs to control gene expression by injecting miRNAs into a cell to turn off a specific gene sequence
What are embryonic stem cells used for?
come from blastocyst
used in cloning, cell cultures for research or stem cells
What are adult stem cells used for?
can be made into many types of cells but not as many as embryonic
What is cancer?
result of mutations in genes that control cell division
What are proto-oncogenes?
normal genes that code for proteins that stimulate cell division in a controlled manner
What are oncogenes?
hyperactive proteins with a stronger stiumlation for cell division than normal
What are tumor-suppressors?
inhibit cell division in repair of DNA damage
How can mutations and damaged genes cause excessive replication and cell division?
mutations inactivate genes and allow uncontrolled division to occur