Biology Final

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Author:
caitlin.schlagal
ID:
188498
Filename:
Biology Final
Updated:
2012-12-10 14:44:26
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bio
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Description:
Comprehensive Bio
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  1. the ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is
    sunlight
  2. how does energy flow in an ecosystem?
    producer --> primary consumer --> secondary consumer --> tertiary consumer --> decomposer
  3. what is the general process of natural selection?
    conditions in nature select organisms in a population with certain better-suited characteristics that enable them to live and reproduce more offspring
  4. what is natural selection a mechanism for?
    evolution
  5. What is a hypothesis?
    a proposed explanation for a set of observations that must be testable and falsifiable
  6. What is deductive reasoning?
    logic that flows from general premises to the specific results we should expect
  7. What is the connection between form and function?
    form is the structure or anatomy while the function is what it does. the two work together
  8. What is inductive reasoning
    logic taht derives general conclusions from specific observations
  9. What are the four most common elements in living organisms?
    oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
  10. What is a covalent bond?
    the strongest bond, in which two atoms share electrons
  11. What is an ionic bond?
    attractions between ions of opposite charge
  12. What is a hydrogen bond?
    a weak bond that holds large molecules together with hydrogen
  13. What is adhesion?
    the tendency of two different kind of molecules to stick together
  14. What is polarity?
    the property of having poles or being polar
  15. What is cohesion?
    tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
  16. What is transpiration?
    process of plants absorbing water from teh soil and releasing it as vapor through their leaves
  17. What does pH measure?
    how acidic or basic a solution is
  18. pH of 0-6 means a solution is
    acidic
  19. pH measure of 7 means a solution is
    neutral
  20. pH of 8-14 means a solution is
    basic
  21. What are the four organic groups of molecules?
    carbs, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
  22. What is the storage form of carbs in plants and animals?
    starch
  23. What does hydrophobic mean?
    water-fearing or wont dissolve in water
  24. What does hydrophilic mean?
    water-loving
  25. Hydrophilic are polar/nonpolar
    polar
  26. Hydrophobic are polar/nonpolar
    nonpolar
  27. Are hydrocarbon chains of fat polar/nonpolar
    nonpolar
  28. What makes fatty acids unsaturated?
    have one or more double bonds
  29. What makes fatty acids saturated?
    have the maximum number of hydrogen adams
  30. What makes proteins different?
    composted of different arrangements of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
  31. What is the function of enzymes?
    metabolic catalysts that raise activation energy
  32. What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophobic?
    tails of the phospholipid bilayer
  33. What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophilic?
    heads of the phospholipid bilayer
  34. What is a nucleoid?
    where DNA of prokaryotic cells is coiled without a membrane around the DNA
  35. What is the major differences between bactereial cells, plant cells, and animal cells?
    • Bacterial cells are more simple than plant and animal cells and only have a plasma membrane and one or more chromosomes and ribosomes. Also have a nucleoid and no true organells.
    • Plant/Animal cells are more complicated and have a membrane bound nucleus and many organelles.
    • Plant cells have walls while animal cells just have membranes.
  36. What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
    serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER
  37. What does selectively permeable mean?
    some substances can cross more easily than others
  38. How are hydrophilic molecules transported through the plasma membrane?
    use transport proteins and facilliated diffusion
  39. How are hydrophobic molecules transported through the plasma membrane?
    easily passes through the membrane thorugh osmosis
  40. What is the difference between active and passive transport?
    active transport requires energy where passive transport does not
  41. What are the forms of active transport?
    • endocytosis-imports things
    • exocytosis-exports things
    • phagocytosis-eating
    • pinocytosis-drinking
  42. What are forms of passive transport?
    • osmosis
    • facilitated diffusion
    • diffusion
  43. What is osmosis?
    diffusion of water
  44. What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
    the cell will expand and possibly burst
  45. What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
    cell will shrink
  46. What happens to a cell in a isotonic solution?
    cell volume won't change
  47. Where does photosynthesis occurs?
    in chloroplasts
  48. Where does cellular respiration occur?
    mitochondria
  49. What molecule cells capture energy released by cellular respiration?
    ATP
  50. What is the overall simplified chemical equation for the cellular respiration of glucose?
    C6+H12+O6----> CO2+H2O+ATP
  51. What are the stages of cellular respiration?
    • Glycolysis
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
  52. What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic cellular respiration?
    oxygen
  53. What is a heterotroph?
    consumers that rely on other things for food
  54. What is an autotroph?
    something that makes its own food
  55. What part of the leaf allows the gas exchange?
    stomata
  56. Why are most plants green?
    chlorophyll is located in the chloroplasts
  57. What protects plant cells from harmful effects of reactive molecules?
    carotenoids
  58. What molecule do photosynthetic organisms derive carbon from?
    carbon dioxide
  59. What is the genetic difference in asexual and sexual reproduction?
    • asexual reproduction-identical offspring
    • sexual-similar to parents but have variations
  60. What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?
    • mitosis-basic cell divison
    • meisosis-produces haploid gametes
  61. What basically occurs in each phase of mitosis?
    • Interphase-basic cell function
    • Prophase-chromosomes coil, nuceloi disappear, spindle forms
    • Metaphase-spindle fully form, chromosomes align in middle
    • Anaphase-chromatids seperate to opposite poles
    • Telophase-cell elongates, nuclear envelopes form, chromatin uncoil and spindle disappears
  62. What is the law of independent assortment?
    • inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another
    • happens in meiosis
  63. What happens in complete dominance?
    when offspring looks like one of the parent varieities
  64. What happens in incomplete dominance?
    neither allele is dominant over the other and both alleles are expressed
  65. What happens in codominance?
    neither allele is dominant over the other, both alleles are expressed and both allels are expressed simultaneously
  66. What is the difference between diploid and haploid cells?
    • diploid-have two identical sets of chromosomes
    • haploid-one set of chromosomes, used for sex cells
  67. How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell?
    46
  68. How many chromosomes are in a sex cell?
    23
  69. What does DNA polymerase do?
    helps make copies and proofreads and corrects improper base pairings
  70. What is translation?
    synthesis of proteins according to RNA
  71. What is transcription?
    synthesis of RNA according to DNA
  72. Genetic information is contained in what?
    nucleic acid
  73. What are nucleic acids made of?
    monomers called nucleotides
  74. What is a mutation?
    any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  75. What is an anticodon?
    a special triplet of bases at the end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes and binds appropriate codons with mRNA
  76. What are operons?
    regulates genes in protein synthesis
  77. What are promoters?
    site in a DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA.
  78. What are operators?
    segment of DNA where the repressor binds to, thereby preventing the transcription of certain genes.
  79. What are activators?
    turn operons on
  80. What are repressors?
    bind and block RNA polymerase action
  81. What is RNA interface?
    the use of miRNAs to control gene expression by injecting miRNAs into a cell to turn off a specific gene sequence
  82. What are embryonic stem cells used for?
    • come from blastocyst
    • used in cloning, cell cultures for research or stem cells
  83. What are adult stem cells used for?
    can be made into many types of cells but not as many as embryonic
  84. What is cancer?
    result of mutations in genes that control cell division
  85. What are proto-oncogenes?
    normal genes that code for proteins that stimulate cell division in a controlled manner
  86. What are oncogenes?
    hyperactive proteins with a stronger stiumlation for cell division than normal
  87. What are tumor-suppressors?
    inhibit cell division in repair of DNA damage
  88. How can mutations and damaged genes cause excessive replication and cell division?
    mutations inactivate genes and allow uncontrolled division to occur

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