SYG 2000 FAMU Final

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  1. Hunting and gathering society
    a nomadic population; generally, the men hunt and women gather wild food
  2. Pastoral
    majority of the population involved in the domestication of animals
  3. Horticulture 
    the majority of the population in engaged in farming with small tools or utensils
  4. Agricultural society
    majority of the population is employed in farming using animal and/or machine power
  5. Industrial Society
    that depends on mechanization and new inventions
  6. Post-industrial
    – a society where the majority of the population is employed in the service or tertiary sector
  7. Mechanical solidarity/Gemeinschaf
    a community based on kinship, similar values, and tradition
  8. Organic solidarity/ Gesellschaf
    – industrial and postindustrial societies that are characterized by diversity in norms, values, jobs, and people who are interdependent
  9.  Groupthink
    a phenomenon that occurs when a person or persons are reluctant to disagree with the group for fear of being perceived as disloyal
  10. Bystander apathy
    reluctant to get involved in an apparent emergency situation
  11. Dramaturgy
    studying social interaction in everyday life  using the model of the theatre
  12. Ethnomethodology
    – breaking the rules to find out what the rules, studying the rules or norms of a people
  13. Social mobility
    movement within a stratification system
  14. Intergenerational
    one’s social status improves in relationship to one’s parents
  15. Intragenerational
    – improvement of one’s social status within the life cycle
  16. Structural mobility
    a change in the economy which creates either high or low paying jobs which may determine one’s social class
  17. Race
    a social construction based on physical appearances and socially constructed ideas
  18.  Minority group
    a group of people who have an economic, social, or educational disadvantaged
  19. Model minority
    a subordinate group recognized as excelling in what is important to the dominant 
  20. Prejudice
    a negative belief or attitude about a person or group, prejudging
  21. Discrimination
    the act of treating a person or group differently; treating someone unequally
  22. Scapegoat
    –blaming another for your problems or misfortune
  23. Authoritarian personality
    personality type that is more prone to prejudice due to rigidity in beliefs, obedience to authority figures, and hostility to subordinates
  24. Asch, Solomon
     social psychologist who conducted the line experiment
  25. Milgram, Stanley
    Social psychologist who studied  group conformity 
  26. Goffman, Erving
    described social interaction as a theatre or dramaturgy
  27. Garfinkel, Harold
    developed ethnomethodology, a method to study the rules of society
  28. Social class 
    a social ranking based on access to social resources
  29. Socioeconomic status
    social class based on occupation, income, and education
  30. Dependency theory
     poor countries are poor because high-income countries use them as a source of cheap labor and exploit their natural resources; they import more than they export
  31. World systems theory
    Immanuel Wallerstein theory on how core nations dominate semi-peripheral and peripheral nations in the present day global capitalist economy
  32. Modernization theory
    poor countries are poor because people are unwilling break with tradition and embrace new ideas
  33. Weber, Max
    author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, critiqued Karl Marx
  34. Marx, Karl
    Social thinker / philosopher; wrote Das Capital and The Communist Manifesto.
  35. Relative poverty
    having an income below the median income level of members in your society; one is poor when compared to others in the same society
  36. Absolute poverty
    -living on less than $2 a day and/or no electricity and/or no indoor plumbin
  37. Thomas theorem
    W.I. Thomas theory “If we define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”
  38. Social interaction
     people interacting with one another
  39. Social construction of reality
     the process of creating the social world
  40. Colonialism
     foreign control of a group of people
  41. Monogamy
     marriage to one person
  42.  Polygamy
    is a marriage which includes more than two partners
  43. Polygyny
     one man married to more than one woman
  44.  Polyandry
    one woman married to more than one man, rarely occurs
  45. Common-law
    two people live together as husband and wife without a marriage ceremony
  46. Arranged
    the spouse is chosen by the parents or some other relative
  47. Nuclear family
     two parent families with children under the age of 18
  48. Extended family
    the nuclear family in addition to one or more relatives living in the same household
  49. Blended family
     a family where both parents have children from a previous marriage or relationship
  50. Patriarchy
    male domination of women and children
  51. Matriarchy
    females being the decision makers in a social environment
  52.  Egalitarian
    equal status; a form of government where both males and females participate in the decision-making of the group
  53.  Patrilineal
     tracing your relatives through your father’s family
  54.  Matrilineal
     tracing your relatives through your mother’s family
  55.  Bilateral descent
     recognizing kinship or relatives from both mother and father
  56. Patrilocal
     a married couple living with the husband’s famil
  57.  Matrilocal
     a marriage couple living with the wife’s family
  58.  Neolocal
     a married couple sets up a new residence separate from their parent
  59.  Empty nest
     a family where the children have left home for college or work
  60.  Sandwich generation
    adults who have the responsibility for caring for aging parents while at the same time caring for their children under the age of 18
  61. Endogamy
     to marry within the group
  62.  Exogamy
     to marry outside the group
  63.  Homogamy
     to marry someone with similar social interest or status
  64. Education
    the social system or institution responsible for the transmission of skills, knowledge, and culture from one generation to the next in a formal environment
  65. Totalitarianism
    a government that controls all aspects of it people’s lives
  66. Authoritarianism
    dictatorship or political party that denies the populace full participation in government
  67. Democratic Elitism
    many elected officials in the U.S. are upper middle class and have advanced college degrees
  68. Power elite model
    W.C. Mills’ concept that U.S. power is vested in a small group of individuals from the executive branch of government, high ranking officers in the military, and corporation heads.
  69. Pluralist model
    in contrast to C.W. Mills “power elite” view, here U.S. power is vested in multiple groups or organizations that exist at various societal levels
  70. Socialism
    an economic system where the production and distribution of goods and services is operated by the government, core businesses are publicly owned; others are privately held
  71. Capitalism 
    an economy built on the concepts of private property, the profit motive, and no or little government intervention.
  72. Primary sector
    that segment of the economy that extracts raw materials from the earth
  73. Secondary sector
    that segment of the economy that manufactures goods
  74. Tertiary sector
    that segment of the economy that provides services
  75. Secondary labor market
    that segment of the economy where individuals have low salaries, little or no benefits, no job security and/or opportunity for advancement
  76. Primary labor market
    the segment of the economy that is composed of high paying jobs with benefits and job security
  77. Informal economy
    underground economy, people who work but don’t pay taxes e.g. undocumented immigrants, street vendors
  78. Formal economy
    legal documented employers and employees who pay taxes
  79. Animism
    belief that objects in your physical environment are endowed with power or spirits
  80. Theism
     belief in the existence of gods or God
  81. Polytheism
     belief in the existence of many god
  82. Monotheism
     belief in one God or god
  83. Transcendental
    religion based on moral principles, may not have a supernatural element
  84. Cohabitation
    A bf & gf living together
  85. Childfree
    Couple that chooses to not have kids.
  86. Childless
    Couple that cannot have kids
  87. Serial monogamy
    Getting married and divorced then married again.
  88. Why is inequality so functional?
    People want to be compensated for their talents.
  89. Education-Manifest Function
    transmission of skills, knowledge and values moral education socialization: student role, citizenship social integration social control: hidden curriculum social replacement social change/innovation/creativity tracking/screening and selecting
  90. Education-Latent Function
    keep out of job market, keep off the street, babysitter ,matchmaker, gender role reinforcement
  91. Education-Conflict perspective
    perpetuation of inequality/reproduction of social class, cultural capital; Hidden curriculum: obedience to authority, discipline, honesty, punctuality Tracking
  92. Education-Dysfunction
    school violence, students can't fill out job application/exit exams, surplus of teachers, engineers, doctors,
  93. Profane
     not sacred, secular
  94. Sacred
     something we give extraordinary value to, connect it to a religion or  belief system
  95.  Religion
    a cultural system of commonly shared beliefs and rituals that provides a sense of ultimate meaning and purpose, by creating an idea of reality that is sacred, all-encompassing and supernatural
  96.  Religion-Manifest function
    provide meaning and purpose, social solidarity/cohesion, social control, moral code
  97. Religion-Latent function
     charity, music entertainment
  98. Religion-Dysfunction
    maintains the status quo, wars, patriarchy (gender role reinforcement)
  99. Religion-Conflict perspective
    Karl Marx: opium of the masses, Hinders social change
  100. Weber's Types of Authority
    traditional, charismatic, rational legal
  101. Political institution
    the social system that distributes and/or exercises power with the intent to preserve order
  102. Political institution-Manifest Function
    Maintain order/preserve order: planning and directing, establishing laws, arbitration of disputes/judiciary system, handling international relations, protecting citizens from man-made and natural disasters
  103. Political institution-Latent Function
     political leaders become celebrities
  104. Political Institution-Dysfunction
    high deficit, excessive taxation, too powerful
  105. Economic Institution
    the social system responsible for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
  106. Religious Organizations
    • ecclesia - state religion
    • church, - good relations with government, bureaucratically organized
    • denomination- not formally associated with state or government
    • sect- break away from established church or denomination cult- unconventional, norms and values opposition to dominant group
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SYG 2000 FAMU Final
2012-12-10 21:32:53
FAMU Freshman Cook 2000 SYG

FAMU Flashcards for SYG Cook
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