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2012-12-10 15:03:57
bio biology exam

Chapter 19
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  1. Some general features of animals.
    • -heterotrophs
    • -mulitcellular
    • -can move
    • -lack cell walls 
    • -reproduce by sexual reproduction
    • -common pattern of development
    • -have unique tissues
  2. What phylum are sponges associated?
  3. List some sponge characteristics.
    • -no tissues 
    • -first multicellular animals
    • -clumps of disassociated cells create a new sponge
    • -perforated by many pores
    • -choanocytes
    • -a filter feeder, traps any food particles
  4. Choanocytes
    flagellated cells lining the body cavity, draw water through the pores
  5. Cnidarians
    phylum cnideria, carnivores capturing prey with tentacles containing stinging cells (cnidocyte)
  6. Which two body forms are associated with cnidarians?
    • *medusae
    • *polyps
  7. Medusae
    floating form, "jellyfish"
  8. Polyps
    sessile form, pipe shaped animals attached to rock
  9. Cnidocyte
    stinging cells
  10. Radial Symmetry
    • multiple planes produce mirror images
  11. Bilateral Symmetry
    • only one plane can cut in half to produce mirror images, cephalization
  12. Cephalization
    evolution of a head
  13. Ectoderm
    outer covering and nervous system
  14. Mesoderm
    skeleton and muscles
  15. Endoderm
    digestive organs
  16. Flatworms
    • phylum platyhelminthes
    • solid worms
    • can be parasitic or free living
    • (flukes & tapeworms)
  17. Degenerative evolution
    loss of features not used in parasitic lifestyle, eyespots of parasitic flatworms compared to free living flatworms
  18. Flatworms
    lack any internal cavity, digestive cavity (one opening), excretory and simple nervous system, asexual reproduction
  19. Hermaphroditic
    both male and female in dame individual
  20. Acoelomates
    no body cavity
  21. Pseudocoelomates
    body cavity (pseudocoel) between mesoderm and endoderm
  22. Coelomates
    cody cavity (coelom) entirely within the mesoderm
  23. Roundworms
    • phylum nematoda
    • have a pseudocoel
    • hydrostatic skeleton
    • lack a defined circulatory system, have a complete digestive tract, move in whip like fashion, unsegmented, cylindrical worms
    • some are parasitic in humans and animals
  24. Hydrostatic skeleton
    rigity from fluids kept under pressure
  25. Rotifers
    • small, aquatic animals that have a crown of cilia around their heads
    • cilia help in both locomotion and feeding
  26. Mollusks
    • phylum mollusca, three regions in body 
    • a head-foot
    • a visceral mass(bodys organs)
    • a mantle(envelopes the visceral mass and is associated with the gills
  27. Radula 
    • unique feeding structure, a rasping tongue-like organ with pointed curving teeth
    • outer surface of the mantle secretes a protective shell
  28. Gastropods
    snails and slugs
  29. Bivalves
    clams, oysters, scallops
  30. Cephalopods
    octupus and squid
  31. Segmentaion
    coelomates, body containing similar segments
  32. Annelid worms
    • first segmented animals, phylum Annelida
    • complete digestive system, circulatory and excretory system
  33. Arthropods
    • phylum arthropoda, most diverse and successful animal group
    • jointed appendages, exoskelton made of chitin(protects from predators and water loss)
    • limited size due to lack of endoskeleton
    • jaws or no jaws
    • segmented bodies can fuse in adults
  34. Mandibulates
    has jaws
  35. Chelicerates
    no jaws
  36. Insects
    • class insecta
    • largest group of arthropods
    • most abundant eukaryotes on earth
    • three body sections
  37. Three body sections of insects
    • head
    • thorax
    • abdomen
  38. Echinoderms
    • phylum echinodermata
    • "spiny skin" -endoskelton beneath the skin
    • entirely marine animals
    • bilatterally symmetrical as larvae  but radially symmetrical as adults
    • water vascular system-aids movement, tiny tube feet attach to ocean floor and animals pull against them
    • reproduce sexually but asexual reproduction is also common
  39. Chordates
    • phylum cordata
    • true internal endoskeleton, muscles attached to an internal rod (notocord)
    • share 4 principal features (notocord, nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches and post anal tail) at sometime in their lives
    • not always vertebrates
  40. Vertibrate chordates differ from tunicates and lancelets in two important respects
    • vertibrates have a backbone-this replaces the role of the notocord
    • vertibrates have a distinct and well differentiated head