Biomed Final review 2

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Biomed Final review 2
2012-12-10 17:24:02
Biomed final review

Biomed final review 2
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  1. What are the three elementary particles?
    Electrons (e-) negative

    Protons (p+) positive

    Neutrons (n) neutral
  2. _________ are the tiniest elementary particles.
  3. Electrons
    They carry a charge, and are not trapped in a nucleus; they are responsible for the chemical prperties of the atom.
  4. Protons
    Carry a positive charge, equal and opposite to that of the electron.  They are sequestered in the nubleus and cannot participate in chemical reactions.
  5. Neutrons
    They have no charge, but like protons, have mass.
  6. ________  ___________ is the basis for nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, and nuclear medicine.
    Nuclear Fission
  7. Prostate beams are used to treat
    prostate, brian and lung cancers.
  8. PET
    positron-emission tomography
  9. Which particle is often represented as a "planet" orgiting the "sun" (atomic mucleus)
  10. Which particles form the nucleus?
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
  11. Mass of neutron
    1,009 Daltons( atomic mass unit)
  12. Mass of proton
    1,007 Daltons (atomic mass unit)
  13. A neutral atom of a particular element has an equal number of ________ and ________
    electrons and protons (so the +and -charge cancel out)
  14. The number of _________ can vary.
    Neutrons. The variation changes the atom's mass but not its chemical properties.  Atoms which vary in the number of neutrons are called isotopes.
  15. Atomic number is what
    number of protons
  16. Mass number is what
    Sum of protons and neutrons
  17. Graphic objective 8. Describe the charge, mass, and relative location of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
  18. Isotopes
    number of neutrons that vary
  19. 2H- Deuterium
    an isotope of hydrogen; Deuterium plus oxygen makes up so -called havy water (D2O), a compound used as a tracer in metabolic studies.
  20. 3H - Tritium
    an isotope of hydrogen. tritium is unstable and a tritium atom will fall apart, on average, after 12 yrs. We call this half -life.
  21. Radioisotopes
    Some combinations of protons and neutrons that are unstable.
  22. Covalent bonds
    bond formed between two or more atoms that share electrons
  23. because atoms "want" to gain or shed electrons to fill outer shells, valence also describes hou many
    positions one moves on the periodic table to rach a noble gas column
  24. Double covalent bond
    when two electrons are shared equally
  25. Triple covalent bond is when
    three electons are shared from each atom
  26. Polar covalent bond
    This kind of bond means that the atoms have a patial charge on them, so it has poles and its called polar.  Because this kind of bond has characteristics of a polor bond and a covalent bond... polor covalent bond
  27. Ionic bond
    when atoms hang out together because they have opposite charges.
  28. What atoms are in the human body that form polar covalent bonds
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Sulfur
  29. Ionic bonds are formed between
    metal and non-metal ions
  30. In a polar covalent bond that pull on eledtrons is measured in a quality called
  31. Hydrogen bonds
    are specialcharacteristics of compounds hat contain haydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and ditrogen, and hydrogen and sulfer
  32. Dipole
    More positve charges at one end, more negative charges at the other
  33. Acid
    a substance that dissolves in water to form one or more H+ ions and one or more anions
  34. Base
    is a substance that dissolves in water to form one or more OH- ions and one or more cations
  35. acids on the human body include
    • gastric juice
    • vaginal fluid
    • urine (most of the time)
    • saliva
  36. bases in the human body include
    • urin (only rarely)
    • blood
    • semen
    • cerebrospinal fluid
    • pancreatic juice
    • bile
  37. the most important buffer system in human biology is the
    carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
  38. Buffer
    acts as a H+ and /or OH- "sponge" so that pH is kept relatively contant
  39. pH
    negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration

    log [H+]