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2012-12-11 12:09:57
counseling theories

exam questions
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  1. The
    founder of reality therapy is:
    • William Glasser &
    • Robert Wubbolding
  2. The view of human nature in reality therapy is:
    Behavior is choice driven
  3. We store information in our minds and build a file of wants and needs called:
    • quality world
    • (picture album)
  4. Basic needs of choice theory:
    • survival
    • love & belonging
    • power
    • freedom
    • fun
  5. Characteristics of the Five Basic Needs of Choice Theory:
    • Universal
    • Innate
    • Overlapping
    • Satisfied from moment to moment
    • Conflict w/ Others' Needs
  6. According to reality therapy or choice theory, total behavior is made up of what 4 components?
    • 1. Acting
    • 2. Thinking
    • 3. Feeling
    • 4. Physiology
  7. In WDEP, what does the ’E’ stand for?
    • Evaluation
    • (self-evaluation)
    • should be WASP: want, action, self-evaluate, plan
  8. Reality therapy contends that clients should not be labeled with a diagnosis except when
    it is necessary for:
    insurance purposes
  9. According to reality therapy, humans have what 5 genetically encoded needs?
    1.    survival

    2.    love & belonging

    3.    power

    4.    freedom

    5.    fun
  10. 5 Principles of Feminist therapy:
    • 1. The personal is political which implements social change.
    • 2. Thecounseling relationship is egalitarian which encourages equality between thetherapist and the client. The client should be aware that she has the power tochange and define herself and the therapist is only a tool with new insight andinformation.
    • 3. Women’s experiences are honored and they should getin touch with their personal experiences and intuition.
    • 4. Definitions of distress and mental illness are reformulated involving the internal as wellas
    • external factors of distress. Pain and resistance are viewed as a positive confirmation of the desire to live and overcome distress rather than being viewed as weak.
    • 5. Feminist therapists use an integrated analysis of oppression which means that they understand that both men and women are subjected  to oppression and stereotypes and that these oppressive experiences have
    • aprofound affect on beliefs and perceptions.
  11. Which theory has the goal of empowerment, which involves acquiring a sense of self-acceptance, self-confidence, joy, and authenticity?
    Existentialism, Person-Centered, Gestalt
  12. According to feminist therapy, reframing includes:
    a shift from blaming the victim to a consideration of social factors and environment
  13. A mandated client is most likely functioning in what type of relationship with the therapist?
    visitor (postmodern)
  14. What
    intervention shifts the emphasis from both past and current problems toward a more satisfying life in the future?
    • Miracle question – “what
    • would be different if problem was solved”
  15. ‘Modern’ viewpoints are concerned with reality, while postmodern approaches look at subjective realities.
    T or F
  16. In family systems therapy, the therapist functions as a:
    collaborative therapist-client relationship
  17. Who was the first psychologist of the modern era to do family therapy?
    Alfred Adler
  18. ______ is when someone takes the blame to protect someone else from being responsible.
  19. The family therapy model that makes the most use detriangulating relationships and family of origin issues is _______
    Bowernian multigenerational family therapy
  20. Bowernian multigenerational family therapy models make use of ....
    genograms, family-of-origin issues, detriangulating relationships.
  21. Experiential Family Therapy models make use of....
    Co-therapist models, self-disclosure, therapist's self as a change agent, and confrontation.
  22. Multi lensed approach to family systems therapy....
    forming a relationship, conducting an assessment, hypothesizing and sharing meaning, and facilitating change.
  23. Differentiation of self is the cornerstone of...
    Bowenian family therapy
  24. the teological lens questions
    "What goals do you have for yourself and for other people in the family? What purposes do you seem to have for how they behave?"
  25. Sequence lens questions
    "How does a typical day go? Are there processes and patterns that characterize current or past transitions for the family? What routines support your daily living?"
  26. Organizational Lens questions
    "Are the parents effective leaders of the family: How do the children respond to parental leadership: Is the process of leadership balanced or imbalanced: Does it lead to harmony or conflict?"
  27. Developmental Lens
    "Where is the family in the family lfe cycle, and how are they handling  transitions? What relational processes have been estqablished over time  and how have they changed through transitional periods?"
  28. The Focus of Family therapy
    action oriented
  29. 8 Lenses of family systems therapy:
    • 1. Individual Internal family system
    • 2. teological lens
    • 3. sequencing: tracking patterns of interaction
    • 4. organizational lens
    • 5. developmental lens
    • 6. multicultural lens
    • 7. gender lens
    • 8. process lens
  30. Roles of structural family therapists
    giving voice to the therapist's own impulses and fantasies
  31. Experiential family therapy
    An interactive process between a therapist and a family, focuses on here and now, techniques grow out of  the spontaneous reactions to the present situation in therapy, and it stresses the subjective needs of the individual family.
  32. Strategic Family Therapy
    most likely to use directives and paradoxical procedures
  33. What theory stresses unlocking mistaken goals, investigating birth order and family constellation, and re-education?
    Adlerian Family Therapy
  34. Contributors to family systems therapy:
    • Alfred Adler
    • Murray Bowen (pa - murry mr brown)
    • Virginia Satir (ma - satire as in dysfunctional family sitcom)
    • Carl Whitaker (oldest son - dr.)
    • Salvador Minuchin (middle child - artist)
    • Jay Haley (youngest - takwando)
    • Cloe Madanes (friend of youngest, madness - Melinda's cat)
  35. Adlerian family therapy time focus:
    present with some reference to the past
  36. Multi Generational family therapy time focus:
    present and past family of origin; three generations
  37. human validation process model time focus:
    here and now
  38. experiential family therapy time focus:
  39. structural family therapy time focus
    present & past (structure needs both for balance)
  40. strategic famiy therapy time focus:
    present & past (also needs both - strategic)
  41. Adlerian family therapy goals:
    Enable parents as leaders; unlock mistaken goals and interactional patterns in a family; promotion of effective parenting.
  42. multi generational family therapy goals:
    • 1. differentiate the self
    • 2. change the individual within the context of the system
    • 3. decrease anxiety
  43. human validation process model therapy goals:
    • 1. promote growth, self-esteem, and connection
    • 2. help family reach congruent communication and interaction
  44. experiential family therapy goals:
    promote spontanaeity, creativity, autonomy, and ability to play
  45. structural family therapy goals:
    restructure family organization; change dysfunctional transactional patterns
  46. strategic family therapy goals:
    eliminate presenting problems; change dysfunctional patterns; interrupt sequence
  47. Roles of Therapists in adlerian family therapy:
    educator; motivational investigator; collaborator
  48. roles of therapists in multi-generational family therapy:
    guide, objective researcher, teacher, monitor of own reactivity
  49. roles of therapists in human validation process model:
    active facilitator; resource detective; model for congruence
  50. roles of therapists in experiential family therapy
    family coach, challenger; model for change through play
  51. roles of therapists in structural family therapy:
    "friendly uncle"' ; stage manager; promoter of change in family structure.
  52. roles of therapists in strategic family therapy models:
    active director of change; problem solver
  53. process of change in adlerian family therapy:
    formation of relationship based on mutual respect; investigation of birth order and mistaken goals, reeducation.
  54. process of change in multi generational family therapy
    questions and cognitive processes lead to differentiation and understanding of family of origin
  55. influential in postmodern narrative therapy:
    • Michael White
    • David Epston
    • (white-out & epson printer)
  56. process of change in human validation family therapy:
    family is helped to move from status quo through chaos to new possibilities and new integrations
  57. process of change in human validation family therapy:
    family is helped to move from status quo through chaos to new possibilities and new integrations.
  58. process of change in experiential family therapy:
    awareness and seeds of change are planted in therapy confrontations (seed/acorn - existential)
  59. process of change in structural family therapy:
    therapist joins the family in leadership role; changes structure; sets boundaries.
  60. process of change in strategic family therapy:
    change occurs through action-oriented directives and paradoxical interventions (paradoxical games - strategy)
  61. Techniques and innovations in adlerian family therapy:
    family constellations; typical day; goal disclosure; natural/logical consequences.
  62. techniques and innovations in multi generational family therapy
    genograms; dealing with family-of-origin issues; detriangulating relationships.
  63. techniques and innovations in human validation process model family therapy
    empathy, touch, communication, sculpting, role playing, family life chronology.
  64. techniques and innovations in experiential family therapy
    co therapy; self disclosure; confrontation; use of oneself as change agent.
  65. techniques and innoventions in structural family therapy
    joining and accommodating unbalancing; tracking; boundary making; enactments.
  66. techniques and innoventions in strategic family therapy
    reframing; directives and paradox; amplifying; pretending; enactments.
  67. coaching
    Bowen's and Whitaker's view of the role of the therapist in assisting clients in the process of diffentiating the self.
  68. coalition
    an alliance between two people against a third
  69. conjoint family therapy
    an early human validation process model developed by Virginia Satir that emphasizes communication and emotional experiencing
  70. differentiation of self
    Bowen's concept of psychological separation of intellect and emotions and of independence of the self from the others. The greater one's differentiation, the better one's ability to keep from being drawn into dysfunctional patterns with other famiy members.
  71. disengagement
    • Minuchin's term for a family organization characterized by psychological isolation that results from rigid boundaries.
    • (think minette - wanted desengagement)
  72. enactment
    in structural family therapy, an intervention consisting of a family playing out its relationship patterns during a therapy session so that the therapist can observe and then change transactions that make up the family structure
  73. enmeshment
    minuchin's term referring to a family structure in which there is a blurring of psychological boundaries, making autonomy very difficult to achieve.
  74. family life-fact chronology
    Satir's experiential technique in which clients retrace their family history for the purpose of gaining insight into current family functioning
  75. family sculpting
    a nonverbal experiential technique that consists of physically arranging members of a family in space; which reveals significant aspects of their perceptions and feeling about one another
  76. family structure
    the functional organization of a fmily, which determines interactional patterns among members
  77. metaframeworks
    an approach to integration of family theories aimed at transcending the various family therapy models
  78. reframing
    relabeling a family's description of behavior by putting it into a new and more positive perspective
  79. triangulation
    a pattern of interaction consisting of detouring conflict between two people involving a third person.
  80. common pathways toward integration of psychotherapies:
    Technical integration

    Theoretical integration

    Assimilative integration

    Common factors approach
  81. Technical
    • based on best treatment
    • techniques for individual (Lazarus’s multimodal therapy)
  82. Theoretical
    • conceptual or theoretical
    • creation beyond techniques
  83. Assimilative
    • grounded in school of psychotherapy & other
    • therapeutic approaches (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy MBCT – cbt + stress
    • reduction)
  84. Common
    factors approach
    • searches for common elements across different
    • theoretical systems (empathic listening, working alliance, opportunity for
    • catharsis, practicing new behaviors, positive expectations, working through
    • conflicts, self-reflection)
  85. The following are advantages of an integrative approach:
    • Openness to various theories and techniques,
    • enhance efficiency and applicability of psychotherapy.
  86. Reality Theory
    • William Glasser:
    • "We are all responsible for what we choose to do. originally called control theory, then choice theory"
  87. Reality Theory
    • Robert Wubbolding:
    • extended Reality therapy with the WDEP system
  88. underlying problems in Reality Therory:
    believes the underlying problem is that people are involved in an unsatisfying relationship or lack a  satisfying relationship. provides a delivery system for helping individuals take more effective control of their lives
  89. diagnosis in reality theory:
    none except insurance purposes
  90. Choice theory
    theoretical basis for reality therapy, explains why and how we function
  91. Choice theory view of human nature
    • Born with 5 genetically encoded needs that drive us:
    • 1. survival
    • 2. love and belonging
    • 3. power
    • 4. freedom
    • 5. fun
  92. Quality world
    reality theory:  a file of wants, our fantasy world, at the core of our life
  93. Picture album
    reality theory:  internal album of specific wants as well as precise ways to satisfy these wants
  94. Total behavior
    reality theory: all behavior is made up of four inseparable but distinct components: acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology
  95. reality theory:
    Choice and responsibility
    use verbs like depressing, headaching, angering, etc. We're responsible for our choices
  96. Contemporary reality therapy
    focuses quickly on the unsatisfying relationship or the lack of a relationship, avoiding complaining, blaming, and criticizing.
  97. characteristics of reality therapy
    • reject transference
    • keep therapy in present
    • avoid symptoms
    • emphasize choice and responsibility
    • challenge traditional views of mental illness
  98. reality theory client-therapist relationship
    attending behavior, listening to clients, suspending judgment, doing the unexpected, using humor, being oneself, etc
  99. the cycle of counseling in reality therapy
    • 1) create the counseling environment
    • 2) implement specific procedures that lead to changes in behavior
  100. realtiy therapy counseling envirnoment
    supportive and challenging, confrontive yet noncriticizing, nonblaming, noncomplaining, caring
  101. Reality Theory:  Procedures that lead to change
    • 1. convinced that our present behavior is not meeting our needs
    • 2. belief that we can choose other behaviors to get closer to what we want
  102. WDEP
    • Wants
    • Do
    • Evaluation (of self)
    • Plans (for improvement)

    (should be WASP: wants, action, self-evaluation, plans)
  103. cornerstone of reality theory:
    • self-evaluation:  cornerstone of reality therapy
    • does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want now, and will it take you in the direction you want to go?
  104. collaborative model
    postmodern: a more egalitarian view of the  therapist's role; a stance advocated by critics of what they see as the authoritaianism in traditional approaches to family therapy
  105. constructivism
    postmodern:  a relativistic point of view that  emphasizes the subjective construction of reality. It implies that what we see in families may be based as much on our preconceptions as on what's actually going on
  106. deconstruction
    a postmodern approach to exploring meaning by taking apart and examining taken-for-granted categories and assumptions, making possible newer and sounder constructions of meaning
  107. hermeneutics
    postmodern:  the art of analyzing literary texts or  human experience, understood as fundamentally ambiguous, by interpreting levels of meaning
  108. not-knowing
    Anderson and Goolishian's term for approaching families with as few preconceptions as possible
  109. postmodernism
    contemporary antipositivism, according to which knowledge is viewed as relative and context dependent; questions assumptions of objectivity that characterize modern science. In family therapy, challenging the idea of scientific certainty and linked to the method of deconstruction
  110. reflecting team
    Postmodern:  Tom Anderson's technique of having the observing team share their reactions with the family at the end of a session
  111. second order cybernetics
    Postmodern:  the idea that anyone attempting to observe and change a system is therefore part of that system
  112. social constructionism
    • postmodern:  like constructivism, challenges the notion of an objective basis for knowledge.
    • Knowledge and meaning are shaped by culturally shared assumptions
  113. solution-focused therapy (SFT)
    Steve de Shazer's term for a style of therapy that emphasizes the solutions that families have already developed for their problems
  114. Who is associated with Reality Therapy?
    • William Glasser
    • Robert Wubbold
  115. Who is associated with Feminist Therapy?
    • Jean Baker Miller
    • Carolyn Zerbe Enns
    • Olivia Espin
    • Laura Brown
  116. Who is associated with Postmodern therapy?
    • Insoo Kim Berg
    • Steve deShazer
    • Michael White
    • David Epston
  117. Who is associated with Family Systems Therapy?
    • Alfred Adler
    • Murray Bowen (think brown)
    • Virginia Satir (think satire/sitcom)
    • Carl Whitaker (think oldest dr child)
    • Salvador Minuchin (think middle-minnette-artist)
    • Jay Haley & Cloe Madanes (think taekwando & madness)
  118. first-order cybernetices
    views the counselor as an observer who is on the outside.
  119. second-order cybernetics
    family therapist becomes part of family (feminist & postmodern approach use this)
  120. Who is associated with solution-focuesd family therapy?
    • Steve de Shazer & Insoo Kim Berg
    • (miracle question)
  121. who is associated with narrative family therapy?
    • Michael White & David Epston (1990)
    • (not-knowing approach)