ANSC 260

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Author:
mct
ID:
188539
Filename:
ANSC 260
Updated:
2012-12-10 17:48:30
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Minerals
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After midterm
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  1. Inorganic mineral elements
    • 22 (0r 26?) inorganic elements considered essential
    • Any mineral element can be toxic at high levels (influenced by age, species, physiological state and other nutrients)
  2. Functions of minerals
    • Structural components
    • Acid/base, osmotic regulation
    • Enzymatic components/cofactors
    • Many have more than one function
  3. Micro minerals
    • <0.01% of BW
    • Trace minerals
    • Essentail trace minerals are B, Co, Cr, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Zn
    • Catalysts for enzymatic reactions
    • Required in organic compounds
    • "normal" dietary ingredients may be low in Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn (and others)
  4. Macrominerals
    • >0.01% of BW
    • Structure (Ca)
    • Osmotic pressure regulation (Na)...
    • Proportions similar amongst species
  5. Calcuim
    • Most abundant species
    • Ca:P between 1:1 and 2:1 for most livestock
  6. Function of Calcium
    • Structure of bones and teeth Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
    • -99% of body's calcium is in bones/teeth
    • Muscle contraction
    • Transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle
    • Clotting of blood
    • Required for maximum protease, phospholipase and nuclease activity
    • Second messanger in cell communication (cellular response to hormones)
  7. Calcium deficiency
    • Rickets
    • Osteomalacia (amount of bone)
    • Osteoporosis (loss of bone density)
    • Parturient paresis
  8. Calcium toxicity
    • Osteopetrosis (over mineralization)
    • Uretheal and kidney stones
    • Reduces absorption of other minerals (Zn, Mg, Fe, I, Mn, Cu
  9. Calcium regulation
    • Very tight control of blood calcium
    • Vitamin D3 and parathyroid homorne both increase plasma Ca
    • Calcitionin decreases plasma Ca (inhibits osteclasts: bone mineralization)
  10. Phosphorus
    • 1.1% of body (fat free)
    • 80-85% in calcuim phosphates in bone
    • Remainder in cells and extracellular fluids
  11. Phosphorus functions
    • Structure of bones/teeth
    • Components of:
    • -phospholipids
    • -DNA and RNA
    • -enzyme and co-enzyme systems
    • -metabolic regulation
    • -energy metabolism
    • -blood bufering (pH control)
    • -control of biological proteins
  12. Phosphorus deficiency
    • Skeletal deformities
    • Reduced growth, appetite, milk production
    • Pica
    • Reproduction disfunction
  13. Phosphorus toxicity
    • Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (big head)
    • Urinary calculi
    • Laxative effect
  14. Magnesium
    In many tissues (50% bones, 20-25% muscles)
  15. Magnesium Function
    • Structure of bones
    • Bone mineral 1% Mg
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
    • Reactions involving ATP
    • Enzme co-factor
  16. Magnesium Deficiency
    • Anorexia
    • Reduced weight gain
    • Hypomagnesemic tetany (grass staggers)
  17. K, NA, Cl
    • Electrolytes: osmotic pressure, acid-base balance
    • 90% K within cells
    • 90% Na outside cells
    • almost all CL present outside cell
  18. Potassium functions
    • Acid/base balance
    • Osmotic regulation
    • Enzyme activation
    • Uptake of glocuse
    • Nerve transmission and muscle contraction
    • Blood pressure regulation
    • Uptake of neutral AA into cells
    • Na+, K+ ATPase
    • Na and Cl excretion by kidney
  19. Potassium toxicity
    • Muscle weakness, abnormal heart function
    • Grass tetany in ruminants
  20. Sodium function
    • Osmotic pressure
    • Sodium electrochemical gradients
    • Acid-base balance
    • Nerve transmision
  21. Chlorine
    • HCl in stomache
    • Osmotic regulation
    • Acid-base balance
    • Water balance
  22. Sulfur
    • Main requirements is AA
    • Also in wool, feathers, and milk
  23. Sulfur functions
    • sulphur AA
    • thiamin & Biotin
    • Enzymes
    • wool/feathers
    • thiols/disulfides
  24. Sulfur supplenentation
    • methionine
    • ruminants can be fed inorganic S
  25. Trace Mineral premixes
    • Are relatively consistent in a species and production type
    • Again, assume none is provided in diet
  26. Iodine (I) function
    • Most found in thyroid
    • -energy metabolism; physical and mental development
  27. Iodine deficiency
    • Goiter, cretinism
    • Solution is iodized salt
  28. Iron (Fe) functions
    • Most present in red blood cells
    • heme protein
    • -02 transport
    • -electron transport in mitochondria
    • -liberates 02 from peroxides
    • Non-heme protein
    • -enzymes
  29. Iron supplementation
    Suckling pigs, veal calves, young animals with parasites
  30. Selenium (Se) functions
    • Component of glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant)
    • Excretion of ketone bodies
    • Selenoproteins with unknown function (replace S in AA)
  31. Selenium deficiency
    • White muscle disease
    • Liver nucrosis
    • Exudative diathesis (chicks)
    • Pancreatic degneration
    • Anemia
    • Sperm abnormalities
  32. Selenium Toxicity
    • Loss of appetite, loss of hair, sloughing hooves
    • Respiratory failure
  33. Boron (B) functions
    • Ca, Mg, vit. D metabolism
    • Maintenence of cell membranes
    • Steriod hormone function
  34. Chromium (Cr) functions
    • Glucose tolerance factr (cellular action of insulin)
    • Nucleic acid metabolism
  35. Cobalt (Co) functions
    • Part of cobalamin
    • Energy, protein metabolism
  36. Cobalt deficiency
    • Similar to vt. B12 deficiency
    • -anorexia
    • -reduced growth
    • -emaciation
    • -anemia
    • Ruminants: cobalt salt
    • Monogastrics: vit B12
  37. Fluorine (F) functions
    • Prevention of dental cavities
    • growth
  38. Molybdenum (Mo) functions
    • Enzyme cofactor
    • Metabolism of drugs & foreign compounds
  39. Silicon (Si) functions
    • Cross-linking in connective tissue
    • Catalyst in bone calcification (?)
    • Excessive silicia in plants cn reduce digestibility (urolithiasis)
  40. Nickel (Ni)
    • Constituent of urease
    • -microbial enzyme
    • Can activate or inhbit certain enzymes tat contain other elements
    • Deficiency only in tightly controlled experiments
  41. Vanadium (V) functions
    • Enzyme co-factor
    • Ossification of bones and teeth
  42. Copper (Cu) functions
    • Cuproenzymes
    • iron metabolism
    • cytohrome c oxidase (electron transport)
    • superoxide dismutase (antioxidant)
    • tyrosinase (pigmentation of skin, hair, and feathers)
    • Interactions: sulphur and Molybdenum will interfere with copper availability
  43. Manganese (Mn) Functions
    • Bone structure (organic matrix)
    • Activator or many enzymes
    • Metalloenzymes
    • Brain function
    • Enzymes (cab, lipid and protein metabolism)
  44. Zinc (Zn) functions
    • Metalloenzymes
    • Stabilization of membranes
    • Binding of proteins to membranes
    • Control of gene transcription
    • Some protein have "zinc fingers" to bind to DNA
    • Immune function

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