Greek historian who in 100 B.C. coined the term “hippiatroi” or horse doctor for individuals who treated horses
4th century Roman author who published a book on the diseases of horses and mules
The Veterinarian, 1st English veterinary journal
America’s 1st veterinary journal
The Federal meat inspection system was implemented because transported cattle infected with ticks were infecting the cattle as well as humans at the new location
F.L. Kilborune, DVM discovered the causative agent for Texas fever (Bovine Piroplasmosis)
Iowa State opened
Texas A&M opened
By 1924 all programs had closed – why?
In 1913 we had the industrial revolution and mechanized transportation which made the horse population drop dramatically. Veterinarians were not needed and so
the schools closed
Presently there are how many Veterinarian Colleges in the U.S
State University Agricultural & Technical College, Delhi, New York
AVMA ruled against regulating technical schools
AVMA Council on Education charged with responsibility for accrediting technical programs
AVMA adopted title of animal technician
Guidelines for Employing Animal Technicians published
Committee on Animal Technician Activities and Training (CATAT) was established
CATAT was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the accrediting body for veterinary technology programs.
Professional Examination Service administered the first National Exam for veterinary technicians
NAVTA (National Association of Veterinary
Technicians of America)
NAVTA mission statement formulated
AVMA and NAVTA form an alliance
NAVTA represented the US at the International Veterinary Nursing Congress in London
CATAT is now known as _______________.
Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities (CVTEA).
List 8 types of aggression.
8. Fear – #1 cause of aggression.
What are 3 reasons for restraint?
Examination, Control and to Prevent injury to animal or human.
List 4 types of restraints:
Gauze muzzle, nylon muzzle, snare
Vein & Location for venipuncture:
Cephalic Front leg,
Saphenous hind leg,
How do you get a fractious cat out of a kennel? (
1) Throw a towel/blanket over the whole cat,
(2) use a snare or leash,
(3) may require tranquilizer/sedation
(4) Ketamine injection/oral admin.
Why is rabies an important disease?
(1) Because it is zoonotic (transfers from animals to humans) and
(2) it is fatal
Breakout of fox rabies
Massive rabies education campaign in Harris County that included: Front page newspaper articles and editorials, Radio announcements, TV broadcasts, Distribution of pamphlets to school children and Broadcast trucks going through neighborhoods
Louis Pasteur developed the 1st rabies vaccine without knowing what caused the disease
1975 – 1977
large outbreak of rabies cases in El Paso and the western part of the state
Rabies Control Act which required all dogs and cats in Texas have rabies vaccination performed by veterinarian. Texas Department of Health was responsible for developing guidelines
Oral rabies vaccination program developed to create a barrier of immune animals in an effort to prevent the spread of rabies in coyotes and foxes. They dropped
bait along the border targeting the Rio Grande
State law changed to required dogs/cats to be vaccinated at 16 weeks (4 months), annual booster, and then 3 year intervals. However the county or veterinarian could implement an annual requirement at their discretion
Early 50’s to late 50’s (58-59) what location had more documented cases of rabies and why? because they documented and had a higher concentration of pets. This was a time that was transitioning from farms to suburbia
Because they documented and had a higher concentration of pets. This was a time that was transitioning from farms to suburbia
What are the 2 sources of rabies transmission
in Harris County
#1 bats, #2 skunks
Why was the rabies vaccination timeframe extended to
Because of the reduction in rabies in Texas
as a result of the 1995 cases
What are the Rabies control measures: (Harris County Department of Public Health and Environmental
1. State implemented vaccination protocols 4 months, annual booster then 3yr intervals
2. Registration and licensing of all dogs and cats through the Harris County Animal Control or City of Houston depending on where you live.
3. Impound and eliminate all strays
4. Quarantine - If there is no known bite by a rabid animal = 10 days. If there is a bite by a rabid animal = up to 45 days.
What are 3 modes of transmittion of diseases?
Agent, Host and Environment
List the type of brand/tattoo that you would
find in the following animals and the location:
D. Thoroughbred =
A. Dog/Cat - microchip on shoulder
B. Cattle= hot iron brand
C. Horse= freeze brand found under mane on the left side of neck
D. Thoroughbred = tattoo on inside upper lip on gumline
What kind of information you do document under
signalment for blemishes/defects?
Amputee, dock tail that is not normally docked, scars discolored hair
What does anamensis mean?
History taking procedure
What information is documented under signalment?
Breed, Age, Sex, Color & Markings, Brand or Tattoo, Blemishes and Defects
Lyme Disease – Mostly in the Northeast States, Colorado.
Spirochete – Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by ticks
5- 10 days
What are the 3 Hematological Methods for diagnosing Heartworm disease?
Direct Smear – Drop of blood on microscope slide to look for live microfilaria (L1 larvae), 60% effective
Millipore filtration/Dye Fill Test –container put filter membrane on it mix blood with lysing solution to destroy red blood cells then run that solution through the filter, take filter off and place that on
microscope slide with drop of dye then coverslip to look for dead microfilaria, 85% effective
Occult test/SNAP test – ELISA (antigen-antibody
response), looking for presence of antibodies, so if animal has adult heartworms in heart, specifically female it will pick up on the antibodies that are being produced by the animal’s body. When test 1st came out in the mid-80s it took over 1 hr to run the test now it only takes 5-6 min. to run the test. 98% effective
Leukopenia (WBC count drops as low as 500), bloody diarrhea (sloughing the intestinal lining/necrotic tissue that has a unique smell), pyrexia, prolonged illness is uncommon, recovery or death within 2 days still sick for another 4-5 days. Generally they die from dehydration.
Fluids, antibiotics, anti-emetics
PAPYRUS OF KAHUN
Written in 1900 B.C. it is the 1st document relating to veterinary medicine which included prognosis and treatment protocols
CODE OF HAMMURABI
Stone tablets written in Babylon that outlined the payment schedule for veterinary services. If the
animal recovered the owner would pay and if the animal did not the veterinarian would pay the owner.
for blood letting. It makes a puncture to bleed the animal. Still in existence for religious format.