Biology Vocab: Evolution, Chapter 9,10,11,12

Card Set Information

Biology Vocab: Evolution, Chapter 9,10,11,12
2012-12-18 17:45:12

bio vocab
Show Answers:

  1. Natural Selection
    the differential survival and reproduction of individuals in a population
  2. Classification
    implies common ancestry
  3. Directional Selection
    change in population traits
  4. Stabilizing Selection
    selection for the average traits
  5. Diversifying Selection
    selection for extremes
  6. Species
    • Species names are given bionomial (two-part) names: first part consists of the genus, second part is the specific epithet
  7. Gradualism
    a slow accumulation of small changes over a long period of time
  8. Puctuated Equilibrium
    rapid change followed by long periods of no change
  9. Migration
    can lead to isolationn of a population
  10. Geographic Barriers
    can also intrude between populations
  11. Allopatric
    species separated by barriers of distance
  12. Sympatric
    speces occupying the same area
  13. p2+2pq+q2=1
    • p2= frequency of dominant, AA
    • 2pq = frequency of hybrid, Aa
    • q2 = frequency of recessive, aa
    • p = frequency of A
    • q = prequency of a
  14. Founder Effect
    genetic differences resulting from a small sample
  15. Population Bottleneck
    genetic change resulting from a dramatic reduction of population numbers
  16. Chance Events
    small popultations are especially prone to loss of alleles through change
  17. Sexual Selection
    when a trait influences chance of mating it is sexually selected
  18. Domain Bacteria
    • most bacteria are probably harmless to humans
    • competition between bacteria has produced compounds that humans make use of
  19. Domain Archea
    archaens typically found in extreme environments (high temperature, high pressure, high salt concentration)
  20. Domain Eukarya
    • Endosymbiotic theory explains the evolutions of eukaryotes and their specialized structures
    • protists, animals, fungi, plantae, viruses
  21. Porifera
    the sponges, simple, and ancient life
  22. Cnidaria (Ni' da ria)
    radial symmetry and simple, anenome and coral polyps
  23. Platyhelminthes
    the flat worms, i.e. tapeworms
  24. Mollusca
    hard shelled sea animals, oysters, octopus, etc.
  25. Annelida
    segmented worms, like earthworms
  26. Nematoda
    roundowmrs, earliets animal with a mouth and anus
  27. Arthropoda
    exoskeletons, crabs, shrimp, spiders, insects
  28. Echinodermata
    starfish, sea urchins
  29. Cordata
    animals with a spinal cord, includes us (the vertebrates)
  30. Fungi
    • immoble, heterotrophic (often decomposers)
    • feed by means of hyphae (roots)
    • antibiotics for killing bacteria are made by many fungi
  31. Plantae
    multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic (manufacture own food) via photosynthesis
  32. Bryophyta
    mosses, no tubes for water movement, must life near moisture
  33. Pteridophyta
    ferns, have water tubes, but still ive near moisture
  34. Coniferaphyta
    cone-bearing plants, like pine trees
  35. Anthophyta
    flowering plants, most of the plants you know
  36. Double Fertilizations
    a sperm for the embryo and a sperm for the "nutrients"
  37. Viruses
    • not really "alive"
    • hijack transcription machinery of cells to reproduce
    • HIV, smallpox, polio, influenza