Final A&P 1

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Final A&P 1
2012-12-11 10:05:25

Final A&P 1
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  1. Describe Afferent vs. Efferent
    Afferent: Body to Brain

    Efferent: Brain to Body
  2. Describe Spinothalamic
    Crude touch, pressure, pain, temp

    Anterior / Lateral

    Both cross in spinal cord
  3. Describe the Dorsal Column
    Touch, Pressure, Proprioception (joint sense)

    Located in posterior white column

    Crosses in the midbrain
  4. Describe Sprinocerebellar Track
    Unconscious Proprioception

    Proprioception from Golgi tendon

    Organs, joint capsule, muscle spindler

    ATAXIC Gait with problem in cerebellum

    2 division posterior (does not cross) anterior (does)
  5. Describe Efferent Pathways
    Reticulospina - Locomotion and reflexes (spine to reticular formation)

    Tectospino - visual tracking (CN2)

    Rubospinal - upper limb muscle tone

    **Corticospinal - motor to all muscles (Extra Pyramidal System) Pyramidal decussation**
  6. Describe Sensory vs Motor
    Map of the pathway

    Look at bottom in the spinal cord

    If arrows moving in and up (sensory)

    If arrows moving down and out (motor)
  7. Describe Mechanoreceptors
    Pressure, touch, vibration
  8. Describe Thermoreceptors
  9. Describe Nociceptor
    Pain, respond to substance "P"
  10. Describe Proprioceptors
    Joint position sense
  11. Olfaction
  12. Vision
  13. Gustation
    CN 9,7, and 5
  14. Hearing (Audition)
    CN 8
  15. Pathology of Olfaction
    • Anosmia
    • Lack of smell
    • Damaged CN1
  16. Pathology of Vision
    • Blindness
    • Color Blindeness (can't determine red/green)
    • Retina Pigmentosa (everything looks white)
    • Nyctalopia (night blindness due to lack of rods)
    • Farsightedness (inablility to see close up)
    • Nearsightedness (inability to see far)
    • Glaucoma (increased interaocular pressure and blockage of Canal of Schlemm)
    • Macular Degeneration (diabetes)
  17. Pathology of Gustation
    Lack of taste (dysguesia)

    PTC: Phenythialcarbamide (everything tastes bitter)
  18. Pathology of Hearing
  19. Pathology of the Vestibular Sense
    Vertigo (dizziness)
  20. Activated by Sensory
    Anything to get impulse on the nerve

    • activated by secondary messengers
    • MC: cAMP secondary messenger

    sound (external auditory meatus) -> tempanic membrane -> malleous, incus, stapes -> organ of corti
  21. Vitamine A
    • Rods
    • Rhodopsin
  22. Melanin
    Gives eye its color
  23. Describe Rods
    • Might vision
    • derivative of vitamin A
  24. Describe Cones
    • Colored vision
    • Visible spectrum
    • Visible: ROYGBV (red, g=orange, yellow,green,blue, violet

    • Red cones (red,orange,yellow)
    • Green¬†cones (some yellow and green)
    • Blue cones (blue and violet)
  25. Eye
    • Snellen eye chart (visual acuity)
    • 20/20 = normal
    • 20/15
  26. Taste
    Sweet and sour (anterior 2/3 of tongue CN7)

    Bitter (posterior 1?3 of tongue CN9)

    Umami (anything pleasent tasting) no CN
  27. Balance
    • CN8
    • Semicircular ducts (fluid)
    • Otoliths (ear stones)
    • Tells us direction of head