Jazz Final Study Guide

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gandalfthegrey
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Jazz Final Study Guide
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2012-12-10 23:37:03
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Music 33
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Jazz
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  1. Musicians and Composers

    List instrument, style, and contribution to jazz
  2. Ornette Coleman
  3. Instruments/Composer/Arranger (4)
    • Alto sax
    • Violin
    • Trumpet
    • Composer
  4. Style
    Free jazz
  5. Contribution
    One of the major innovators of the free jazz movement.
  6. John Lewis
  7. Instrument/Composer/Arranger (3)
    • Piano
    • Composer
    • Arranger
  8. Style
    Cool jazz
  9. Contribution/Association
    Musical director of the American Jazz Quartet
  10. Jaco Pastorius
  11. I/C/A (2)
    • Electric Bass
    • Composer
  12. Style
    ?
  13. Contribution/Association (2)
    • Associated with Weather Report
    • Many copied his usage of the fretless electric bass
  14. Charlie Parker
  15. I/C/A
    Alto Sax
  16. Style
    Bebop
  17. Contributions/Associations (3)
    • One of the most infulential improvising soloists in jazz
    • A central figure in the development of bebop in the 40s
    • Formed a quintet with Miles Davis
  18. Horace Silver
  19. I/C/A
    Piano
  20. Style
    Hard Bop/Funky Jazz/Straight-Ahead Jazz/Soul Jazz
  21. Contributions/Associations
    Founding member and pianist of the Jazz Messengers
  22. Machito or Frank Grillo
  23. I/C/A
    Trumpet
  24. Style
    Cubop
  25. C/A (2)
    • Bandlader in a Latin Jazz Quartet which included Dizzy Gillespie
    • Responsible for the integration of Afro-Cuban music into jazz.
  26. Grover Washington, Jr.
  27. I/C/A
    • All saxophones except for the baritone sax
    • Arranger
  28. Style
    Smooth Jazz
  29. C/A (2)
    • Considered one of the founding members of the Smooth Jazz genre.
    • Many musicians copy his style
  30. Dizzy Gillespie
  31. I/C/A (2)
    • Trumpet
    • Composer
  32. Style
    Bebop
  33. C/A (2)
    • Helped develop the fusion of jazz and Afro-Cuban music.
    • Helped develop bebop
  34. Thelonius Monk
  35. I/C/A
    Piano
  36. Style
    Bebop (but played many more)
  37. C/A
    • Helped develop bebop
    • Wrote many 32 bar ABA forms
  38. Kenny G
  39. I/C/A
    Soprano sax
  40. Style
    Smooth Jazz
  41. C/A
    ???
  42. Dave Brubeck
  43. I/C/A
    Piano
  44. Style
    Cool Jazz
  45. C/A
    Incorporated Eastern-European 5 beat into his music (heartbeats)
  46. Joe Zawinul
  47. I/C/A (2)
    • Acoustic piano
    • Electric keyboard
  48. Style
    Jazz Fusion
  49. C/A
    Founding member of Weather Report
  50. Wayne Shorter
  51. I/C/A
    Sax
  52. Style
    Jazz Fusion
  53. C/A (2)
    • First was a part of Jazz Messengers
    • Then joined Weather Report
  54. Wynton Marsalis
  55. I/C/A
    Trumpet
  56. Style
    New Jazz
  57. C/A
    • Considered a Jazz Messenger
    • Front guard of the next generation of jazz
  58. Mario Bauza
  59. I/C/A
    Trumpet
  60. Style
    Cubop
  61. C/A
    Led several bands with step-bro, Machito.
  62. Cecil Taylor
  63. I/C/A
    Piano
  64. Style
    Free jazz
  65. C/A
    Loved and hated in the avant-garde.
  66. Gunther Schuller
  67. I/C/A (2)
    • French horn
    • Composer
  68. Style
    Third stream
  69. C/A (3)
    • Created the term "third stream"
    • Part of Miles Davis' nonet
    • Had an "air of mystery"
  70. Gil Evans
  71. I/C/A (3)
    • Piano
    • Composer
    • Arranger
  72. Style
    Third stream
  73. C/A
    • Helped create cool jazz
    • Part of Davis' nonet
  74. Gerry Mulligan
  75. I/C/A
    Baritone sax
  76. Style
    Cool jazz
  77. C/A
    • Used baritone sax, which was the largest jazz sax
    • Played in a higher register of notes
  78. Sun Ra
  79. I/C/A (3)
    • Piano
    • Organ
    • Arranger
  80. Style
    Free jazz
  81. C/A
    • Played programmatic music
    • Played duets with Cecil Taylor
  82. Charles Mingus
  83. I/C/A (3)
    • Double bass
    • Piano
    • Arranger
  84. Style (3)
    • Bebop
    • Cool jazz
    • Free jazz
  85. C/A
    Started off as a beboper, but was soon known as the Father of Free Jazz
  86. Modern Jazz Quarter
  87. Key Members + I/C/A
    • John Lewis (piano)
    • Milt Jackson (vibes)
    • Percy Heath (double bass)
    • Connie Kay (drums)
  88. Style (2)
    • Cool jazz
    • Third stream
  89. C/A
    ???
  90. John Coltrane
  91. I/C/A (2)
    • Soprano sax
    • Tenor sax
  92. Style
    Cool jazz
  93. C/A
    • Considered lead cool jazz performer
    • Experiment with Avant-Garde and classical music
  94. Herbie Hancock
  95. I/C/A (2)
    • Piano
    • Keyboard
  96. Style (3)
    • Hard bop
    • Soul jazz
    • Jazz fusion
  97. C/A (2)
    • Mixed funk with jazz and synthesizers
    • Brought jazz to pop culture by mixing it with other styles
  98. Keith Jarrett
  99. I/C/A
    Piano
  100. Style
    Fusion
  101. C/A (2)
    • Worked with Art Blakey and Miles Davis
    • Mixes classical with jazz
  102. Chick Correa
  103. I/C/A
    • Piano
    • Keyboard
  104. Style
    Jazz fusion
  105. C/A (2)
    • Key player in the jazz fusion movement
    • Played avant-garde under Davis
  106. Weather Report
  107. Key Members + I/C/A
    • Wayne Shorter (sax)
    • Joe Zawinul (keyboard)
    • Jaco Pastorius (electric bass)
  108. Style
    Jazz Fusion
  109. C/A
    Remarkable evolution throughout the band's history
  110. Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers
  111. Key Members + I/C/A
    • Art Blakey (drummer)
    • Horace Silver (piano)
    • Wynton Marsalis (trumpet)
  112. Style
    Hard bop
  113. C/A
    Many talented musicians came forth from this band
  114. Miles Davis
  115. I/C/A
    Trumpet
  116. Style (4)
    • Bebop
    • Cool/third stream
    • Modal jazz
    • Fusion
  117. C/A (3)
    • Leader of the cool style of jazz
    • Helped create modal jazz
    • Combined rock and jazz (fusion)
    • The most important figure in the second half of the twentieth century
  118. Chano Pozo or Luciano Pozo
  119. I/C/A
    Congas
  120. Style
    Cubop
  121. C/A (2)
    • Introduced hand-held drums into a U.S. jazz ensemble, specifically Gillespie's
    • Also introduced AfroCuban chants and the rhythms of the rumba brava
  122. Antonio Carlos Jobim
  123. I/C/A (3)
    • Piano
    • Acoustic guitar
    • Composer
  124. Style
    Bossanova
  125. C/A
    Desafinado would influence Gillespie and other musicians
  126. David Sanborn
  127. I/C/A
    Sax
  128. Style
    Smooth jazz
  129. C/A
    Many musicians copy Sanborn's style
  130. Stan Getz
  131. I/C/A
    Tenor sax
  132. Style
    Cool jazz (initially bebop)
  133. C/A
    Brought bossanova to America's attention.
  134. Wes Montgomery
  135. I/C/A
    Guitar
  136. Style
    Smooth jazz
  137. C/A
    • Recorded smooth jazz covers of songs popular songs.
    • Known for playing his solos in octaves
  138. Creed Taylor
  139. I/C/A
    Record producer
  140. Style
    Smooth jazz
  141. C/A
    • Helped start smooth jazz
    • Hired Montgomery & Grover Washington Jr.
  142. Musical Styles and Terms
  143. European classical elements are utilized in __________ jazz.
    third stream
  144. "Sheets of Sound" references what?
    The cascades of arpeggios Coltrane used for his energetic style, which was described as a whirlwind of notes.
  145. Who coined this term?
    Ira Gitler
  146. "Fables of Faubus" was written by whom?
    Charles Mingus.
  147. What is the significance of this song?
    It was one of Mingus' most politically charged, being written as a condemnation of the actions of Orval Faubus, who sent the National Guard to prevent the integration of Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas by nine African-American teenagers.
  148. "Take Five" was performed by who?
    Dave Brubeck and his Quartet.
  149. What unusual time signature is this played in?
    5/4
  150. Giant Steps was released by whom?
    John Coltrane.
  151. Why is it significant?
    It his breakthrough album, and features his "sheets of sound" technique.
  152. Avant Garde
  153. What other monikers does this style of jazz go by? (3)
    Free/out/experimental
  154. What characterizes this style of jazz?
    Mathematical thinking that is not restricted by the music industry. A way for musicians to express themselves.
  155. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (5)
    • Cecil Taylor
    • John Coltrane
    • Chick Corea
    • Ornette Coleman
    • Cecil Taylor
  156. Cool jazz
  157. What characterizes cool jazz? (7)
    • A relaxed tempo
    • Lighter tone
    • Formal arrangements
    • Incorporation of classical music
    • Restrained, lighter, vibrato-free lines
    • Use of counterpoint
    • Use of atypical jazz instruments, such as the French horn and tuba
  158. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (10)
    • John Lewis
    • Dave Brubeck
    • Gil Evans
    • Gerry Mulligan
    • Charles Mingus
    • Mordern Jazz Quartet
    • John Coltrane
    • Miles Davis
    • David Sanborn
    • Stan Getz
  159. Bebop
  160. What characterizes bebop? (4)
    • Not to be danced to, but listened to.
    • Fast tempos
    • Complex chord progressions
    • Virtuoso improvisation using multiple scales and altered tones
  161. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (6)
    • Charlie Parker
    • Dizzy Gillespie
    • Thelonius Monk
    • Charles Mingus
    • Miles Davis
    • Stan Getz (initially)
  162. Hard Bop
  163. What characterizes hard bop?
    Simpler chord progression than bebop
  164. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (3)
    • Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers
    • -Horace Silver
    • Herbie Hancock
  165. Free Jazz
  166. What characterizes free jazz?
    No reliance on key nor chord chord progression for improvisational structure.
  167. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (5)
    • Ornette Coleman
    • Cecil Taylor
    • Sun Ra
    • John Coltrane
    • Chick Corea
  168. Modal Jazz
  169. What characterizes modal jazz?
    Modal scales serve as the basis of improvisation.
  170. What musicians play this kind of jazz?
    Miles Davis
  171. Latin Jazz
  172. What characterizes latin jazz?
    Latin American rhythms.
  173. What two categories does latin jazz expand into?
    • Afro-Cuban Jazz (Cubop)
    • Afro-Brazilian Jazz (Bossanova)
  174. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (4)
    • Machito
    • Mario Bauza
    • Chano Pazo
    • Antonio Carlos Jobim
  175. Bossa Nova
  176. Bossa nova is a _______ style of jazz that evolved from _______.
    Brazilian; samba
  177. What characterizes bossa nova?
    More harmonically complex with less percussion in comparison to samba.
  178. Who brought bossa nova to the attention of the U.S.?
    Stan Getz.
  179. What musicians play this kind of jazz?
    Antonio Carlos Jobim
  180. Funky Jazz
  181. What characterizes funky jazz? (3)
    • Strong backbeat
    • Electrifying sound (analog synthesizers)
    • Strong feel of grove and R&B
  182. What musicians play this kind of jazz?
    Horace Silver
  183. Straight-Ahead Jazz
  184. What other names can straight-ahead jazz go by? (4)
    • Hard Bop (?)
    • Funky Jazz
    • Mainstream
    • Soul Jazz
  185. What characterizes straight-ahead jazz. (4)
    • A walking bass.
    • A swing 4/4 time signature in the drums.
    • In the piano, syncopated chords in the left hand, and melodic, mostly single-note soloing in the right hand.
    • A head followed by a solo by each melody instrument, and sometimes drums and bass, followed by a reprise of the head.
  186. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (3)
    • Horace Silver
    • Wayne Shorter
    • Herbie Hancock
  187. Smooth Jazz
  188. What characterizes smooth jazz?
    Elevator music
  189. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (5)
    • Grover Washington, Jr.
    • Kenny G
    • David Sanborn
    • Wes Montgomery
    • Creed Taylor
  190. Jazz Fusion
  191. What characterizes jazz fusion?
    A mix of electric instruments that appealed to a younger audience
  192. What musicians play this kind of jazz? (8)
    • Weather Report
    • -Jaco Pastorius
    • -Joe Zawinul
    • -Wayne Shorter
    • Herbie Hancock
    • Keith Jarrett
    • Chick Corea
    • Miles Davis

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