drug lit stats
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what determines statistical significance
alpha

what determines clinical significance
delta

variable that is being manipulated
factors or treatments
independent

variable that is the outcome
dependent

PICO
 problem
 intervention
 comparison
 outcome

intervention plus comparison is what
independent variable

discrete data
 nominal and ordinal
 lists/tables

continuous data
 interval and ratios
 graphs


difference between the poisson and the binomial distribution
binomial  all eligibe phenomena are studied
poisson  only the cases with a particular outcome are studied

scale  severity (pain scale)
ordinal

constant and defined units of measurement
scale that can cross 0. 2020
temperature
interval

scale that doesn't cross the O. 032
if zero  then dead
ratio

normal curve tests
parametric

test of nonnormal curve
nonparametric

when is a fisher's exact test used
if the expected value is less than 5

which scales have a SD
interval and ratio

standard deviation expressed as percentage of the mean
useful to compare the relative differences between two or more samples
coefficient of variation

the statistics found that the null hypothesis is false when it is really true
type I or alpha

the statistics found the null hypothesis is true when it is really false
type II or beta

what is the P in PICO studing
the population at risk

predetermined largest probability of a false nonrejection of the null the researchers are willing to accept
 beta
 the smaller selected the larger the sample size that is needed

probability that a difference will be detected and the null hypothesis will be rejected when it should be rejected
power

what is power usually
80%

what does power depend on
 sample size
 alpha level
 delta


determine how much of a change want to see

range of values that has a specified probability of containing the parameter being estimated
confidence interval




how many times more likely an outcome is in one group compared to the other
risk ratio

odds of an outcome in one group compared to the odds of the outcome in the other group
odds ratio

the probability that a healthy person will develop A disease in a specified period
incidence

the number of cases at a specific time
prevalence