Pathophysiology of diseases
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A group of psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances in thought, mood, and behavior.
Medical specialty that diagnoses and prescribes medical treatment for mental illness.
Discipline that studies normal and abnormal behavior and applies counseling methods to treat mental illness.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders vol. 4
Biological basis for Mental Illness
Neurotransmitters and anatomical differences i.e. brain size and altered neural connections.
Degenerative syndrome characterized by deficits in memory, language, and mood. Its form is Alzheimer’s disease which develops gradually and usually occurs after the age of 60 years.
Which form of dementia has an abrupt onset and is caused by physical insults from high blood pressure, diabetes, and strokes.
A degenerative neurological movement disorder, characterized by dementia in late stages of the disease.
Earliest manifestation is loss of short-term memory. Psychosis, aggression, and personality changes are associated with advanced disease. With severe disease, judgment is lost, personal care is neglected, and physical illnesses ultimately may lead to death.
Which neurotransmitter is the most aggressively affected in AD patients and what does it correlate with?
Ach and correlates with memory loss.
Alteration in which 3 neurotransmitters have been documented in AD, and may play a role in mood, behavior, and aggression?
NE, GAGA and Serotonin.
What are the two most significant risk factors for AD?
Advance age and family history.
What is the prevalence of AD in the 85-90 year old population?
What two factors are associated with a greater risk for developing AD?
Mutation in chromosomes and inheritance of two copies of high-risk genes.
Treatment for AD
Medications are used to slow the progression and to treat symptoms of depression, aggression, and anxiety. Medications that replace Ach improve memory. Antidepressants and antianxiety medications are prescribed to manage depression and anxiety. Vitamin E may prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease by decreasing O2 free radicals that accelerate cell death.
Complex illnesses characterized by psychosis or a loss of contact with reality, severe disturbances in social functioning, bizarre thoughts, changes in affect or emotional state, withdrawal from social relations, and unpredictable behavior.
When is the onset of schizophrenia mostly noted?
Teenage reay and early adulthood.
What are the early symptoms of schizophrenia?
Depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, difficulty in concentrating, and restlessness.
What are the 3 types of delusions commonly associated with schizophrenia?
Persecutory, grandiose and somatic.
What are the different motor disturbances in schizophrenia
Catatonic (ranges from a total reduction in movement or “zombie like state,” to a wild aggressive and agitated state), rigid, disorganized or agitated.
Which abnormalities of the brain support the physiological basis of schizophrenia?
Faulty brain development, atypical brain anatomy, and alterations in chemical regulation of the neurotransmitter, dopamine
Treatment of schizophrenia
Dopamine replaacement therapy, psychosocial thereapy.
Disorders that are characterized by marked periods of sadness and euphoria.
What are the four subcategories of depression?
- Seasonal affective disorder: Due to decreased sunlight exposure during the winter months
- Postpartum depression: Occurs 2 weeks to 6 months following the birth of a child
- Dysthymia: Symptoms of depression that persist for more than 2 years
- Premenstrual dysmorphic disorder: Cyclic depressive symptoms prior to menstruation may occur regularly for some women
What is the etiology of Depression?
- Stressful life events
- Regulatory disturbance in neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine)
Treatment for depression
Medications that increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, effectively reduce symptoms of depression.
Mood disorder that causes unusual shifts from depression to mania
Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness.
associated with periods of intense mania and depression that lasts for several weeks.
associated with less severe episodes of mania, however depression might continue for several weeks
Etiology of bipolar disorder
- Genetic, biochemical, and environmental causes have been identified.
- Several genes acting together may ultimately identify patients that develop bipolar illness.
- Bipolar illness runs in families and stressful experiences may trigger symptoms.
- Change in neurotransmitter regulation
Treatment for bipolar disorder.
- Prolonged treatment with medications called mood stabilizers, antidepressants, sedative medications or “sleep aids,” and major tranquilizers or antipsychotic medications.
- Family and individual patient counseling improves social functioning.
What are the types of anxiety disorders?
- Panic disorder
- Generalized anxiety disorder
- Phobic disorders
- Social phobia
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Sudden onset of fear and terror accompanied by physical symptoms in vital organs. Shortness of breath, chest pains, palpitations, peak within 10 minutes and usually resolve within 30-60 minutes
Severe persistent worries that are out of proportion to the circumstances. Common worries related to work, money, health, and safety are difficult to control. Additional complaints of restlessness, fatigue, muscle tension, impaired concentration, and disturbed sleep.
Generalized anxiety disorder.
Irrational fear of something that poses little or no danger. Begin in childhood and disappear with age.
Excessive worry and self-consciousness in everyday social situations. Intense fears of being humiliated in social situations interfere with ordinary activities. Physical symptoms: blushing, profuse sweating, nausea, and difficulty talking.
Factors that might cause anxiety disorders
- Head injuries
- Overactive thyroid gland
- Cardiovascular disease
- Respiratory disease
- Altered regulation of neurotransmitters
Treatment for anxiety disorders
Medications and psychotherapy. Medications that increase the effect of GABA have a calming effect and work quickly. Use of antianxiety medications is limited by their potential for addiction.
Risks of suicide
- Substance abuse
- Previous suicide attempts
- Family history of suicide
- History of sexual abuse
- Impulsive or aggressive character
Warning signs of suicide.
- Talk of death
- Giving away cherished possessions
- Sudden shift in mood
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