a system of farming developed in medieval europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
Port city in Italy where Columbus was born, famous for trade.
an economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
a medieval country in northern europe, became the center of trade for northern europe (it's now part of belgium) and was known for its woolen cloth, where the renaissance began.
a city in northeast Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges. major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
in medieval europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests. (403)
ruled florence during the renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled florence for about 3 centuries.
Large churches originating in twelfth-century france; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
the renaissance ("rebirth") was a cultural movement that began in italy (florence was the center of the ranissance) and spanned roughly from the 14th to the 17th century.
a philosophical and theological system, associated with thomas aquinas, devised to reconcile aristotelian philosophy and roman catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
(roman catholic church) italian theologian and doctor of the church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology. he argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
an italian poet famous for writing the divine comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by virgil and his idealized beatrice (1265-1321)
english poet remembered as author of the canterbury tales (1340-1400)
people who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. taught life should be meaningful. displayed a critical approach to learning.
dutch humanist and friend of sir thomas more. believed the problems in the catholic church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a reformation. wrote praise of folly.
invented the printing press and movable type which enabled humanist literature to spread rapidly throughout europe.
one of the best examples of a renaissance man. he painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas. Painted the Mona Lisa
this was an artist who led the way for renaissance masters from his david sculpture and his painting of the sistine chapel ceiling
a split within the catholic church from 1378 to 1417. two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. ended by council of constance
Great Western Schism
this document was signed by king john in 1215. it was the first document that limited the power of the government. Royal charter
series of campaigns over control of the throne of france, involving english/ french royal familie. england loses and losses half of its land. the negative impact- france became an absolute power. positive impact- france formed a nation-state. ended in 1453.
Hundred Years War
the lawmaking branch of the british government
france's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in french society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. the calling of the estates general in 1789 led to the french revolution.
the reconquering of spain from the muslims in 1492 by ferdinand and isabella. this unified spain into a powerful nation-state.
during the late 15th century, they became king and queen of a united spain after centuries of islamic domination. together, they made spain a strong christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably christopher columbus.