Biomed final review 6

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  1. Module 6
    Graphic objective 2. Identify the primary shapes and arrangements of the bacteria
  2. Module 6
    Graphic objective 5.  Explain the growth phases and reproductionof bacteria
  3. Two classes that must be intracellular to survive:
    • Chlamydia
    • Rickettsias
  4. Obligate intracellular organisms
    require a eukaryotic cell for replication.
  5. Chlamydia trachomatis causes a variety of human infections including:
    Trachoma (eye infection that may lead to blindness)

    Sexually-transmitted diseases causing pelvic inflammatory disease and urethritis.

    Conjunctivitis in newborns acquired during birthing process.
  6. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US causing ______ _______ _________ in women and ________ in males.  Another variant causes _____ ______ in newborns acquired during passage through birth canal.
    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); urethritis; epidemic conjunctivitis
  7. Rickettsia
    Obligate intracellular parasite

    Transmitted by a vector (lice, ticks)

    Transmitted to humans through bite of the vector

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a systemic disease that is common in many states in the US.
  8. Mycoplasmas
    Tiniest free-living organisms.

    Do not have a cell wall.

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae- causes primary atypical pneumonia.
  9. Fungi are
    • important for the decomposition and recycling of organic material.
    • -divided into two groups, yeasts and molds. 
    • Examples: Candida albicans (yeast infection) and Tinea Corporis (ringworm, mold)
  10. Most fungi, such as molds and mushrooms, are ________, Only yeasts are_______.
    multicellular; unicellular
  11. In the environment, fungi are
    important decomposers of organic matter.
  12. The growth of the mold begins as one or more _______ deposited from the environment grows into filamentous, thread-like masses called a _________.  Spores are eventually produced by _______.  Spore arrangement and appearance depend on the _______ _______.
    spores; mycelium; molds; fungal species
  13. Some molds cause _________ ________ in humans, especially among individuals with compromised ______ ______.  Many of these opportunistic infections affect the _____ system due to ______ of the _______ _______ from the _________.
    opportunistic infections; immune systems; respiratory; inhalation; fungal spores; environment.
  14. Pathogenicity of the molds varies, but most are usually limited to infections of the _____, ______ and ______.   Molds cause such infections as _______ ______, ______ ______, and _________.
    hair; nails; skin; athlete's foot; jock itch; ringworm.
  15. YEASTS: These unicellular fungi are also ______ in nature.  They are very important in ____, ____ and _______ production, and other commercial applications.
    diverse; bread; beer; alcohol.
  16. Most common yeast infections are caused by a species called
    Candida albicans which causes an infection of the mouth and pharynx called thrush.  This yeast is also a common cause of vaginitis.
  17. Individuals with ________ and compromised _____ _______ are particularly susceptible, and systemic infections do occur.  Several species of yeast exist as ______ _____, especially on _____ _________ and the __ tract.
    diabetes; immune systems; normal flora; mucus membranes; GI
  18. Parasitic Organisms: Protozoa and Helminths
    Live at the expense of the host.

    • Transmitted to humans by vectors:    
    • -Biological (mosquito transmitting malaria)    
    • -Mechanical (transmission of parasite eggs to food by flies and other insects.
  19. Parasites in contaminated food and water, exposure to a carrier vectors, and other factors account for up to
    20 million deaths per year either from the parasitic disease itself, or from complications that arise from the disease.
  20. Parasites can be broadly classified into two large groups:
    the single-celled protozoa and the multi-cellular helminths, or worms
  21. All parasitic organisms are in the
    kingdom protista, one of the 5 major kingdoms of living organisms.
  22. Protozoa
    -Single-celled organisms.

    -Motile trophozoite stage (infective stage)

    -Cyst stage (dormant state)
  23. Examples of Common Protozoans Pathogenic for Humans
    Giardia lamblia


  24. Giradia lamblia
    ingesting cysts from animal contaminated water.

    intense gastrointestinal (GI) distress and diarrhea.
  25. Cryptosporidium
    self-limiting GI symptoms.

    if infected can become a carrier.

    recently associated with recreational water use.
  26. There are severa species, but all are transmitted by the _________ mosquito which serves as the definitive host.
  27. Plasmodium

    350-500 million cases/year worldwide; over 1 million deaths, primarily in African children.

    Humans are intermediary hosts.Organism invades RBC's
  28. The helminths come in four groups:
    flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, and the tissue parasites.
  29. Helminths: Parasitic Worms
    • Hosts are definitive or intermediate    
    •  Definitive: harbor parasite when it reproduces.         

    Intermediate: harbor parasite during a developmental stage in the parasite's life cycle.    

    Accidental: not part of the normal life cycle.
  30. Tapworms are
    segmented worms that contain a head (scolex) and many segments (proglottids).

    Hermaphrodites. (containing both ovaries & testes)

    infective stage is larvae found in cattle and swine.Most prevalent: Beef and Pork (Taenia); Fish (Dibothrocephalus)

    Several cm to meters in length.
  31. Roundworms (intestinal)
    Live in lumen of intestinal tract.

    Infection occurs by ingestion of egg or by penetration of the skin by the larvae.

    Pinworms (Enterobius); Ascarids; Hookworms.
  32. What does symbiosis mean?
    "Living together"
  33. List three different symbiotic relationships with a liveing host
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
    • Commensalism
  34. Mutualism
    • both members of the association benefit
    • Classic example: Escherichia coli (E. coli)- Living in the large intestine of humans
    • -the bacterial love the warm environment humans provide
    •  -Humans benefit from the vitamine K that E. coli produces
  35. why is vitamin K essential ?
    It aids in the blood clotting process
  36. Parasitism
    • In which one organism, the parasite, benefits from the relationship and the other organism, the host, is harmed
    • There are many types of parasites
    • Two examples: Malaria and tape worms
  37. Comensalism
    • One oraganism benefits and the other is neutral
    • Example: the bacteria that live on our skin
    • They benefit frim the nice warm enviornment, the human host is not harmed.
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Biomed final review 6
2012-12-11 03:15:53
Biomed final review

Biomed final review 6
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