Respiration Ch7.txt

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chrastini
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188626
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Respiration Ch7.txt
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2012-12-10 22:06:53
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Respiration System
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  1. respiration
    mechanical process of breathing
  2. expiration
    process of exhaling or breathing out
  3. inspiration
    process of inhaling or breathing in
  4. external respiration
    exchange of air between the lungs and external environment
  5. internal respiration
    exchange of air between body cells and capillary blood vessels
  6. anosomia
    absence of smell
  7. aphonia
    without voice
  8. asphyxia
    decrease in amount of O2 and increase in amount of CO2 in the blood, which causes an absence of pulse. Insufficient oxygen intake may result in suffocation
  9. coryza
    common cold
  10. epistaxis
    nosebleed
  11. hydrothorax
    collection of fluid in pleural cavity
  12. pleural rub
    grating sound
  13. productive cough
    expectorate sputum
  14. COPD
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- class of lung diseases of uncertain etiology characterized by persistent slowing of airflow during forced expiration (eg. emphyzema)
  15. pneumonia
    acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli, resulting from microorganisms such as bacteria (pneumococci, staphylococci), fungus or viruses
  16. bronchopneumonia
    a specific type of pneumonia which begins in the terminal bronchioles
  17. lobar pneumonia
    involves one or more lobes of the lung
  18. pulmonary embolism
    clot or other material from distal veins that moves through the bloodstream and lodges in vessels of the lung. A V/Q (Ventilation/Perfusion) scan diagnoses this condition
  19. endoscopy
    the process of using an instrument to view the interior of an organ (eg. bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, pharyngoscopy); examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
  20. palpation
    touching; feel tremors through chest wall
  21. percussion
    tapping; detects fluid or pus
  22. pulmonary function tests
    (PFTs) are airflow assessments; spirometry is used in these tests
  23. needle biopsy of lung
    biopsy needle inserted through small skin incision, with cells aspirated for cytologic and bacteriologic diagnosis
  24. ventilation therapy
    assissted ventilation for the patient
  25. CPAP
    continuous positive pressure breathing- assisted ventilation
  26. IMV
    intermittent mandatory ventilation- assisted ventilation
  27. IPPB
    intermittent positive pressure breathing- assisted ventilation
  28. PIP
    peak inspiratory pressure- assisted ventilation
  29. PEEP
    positive end-expiratory pressure- assisted ventilation
  30. SIMV
    synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation- assisted ventilation
  31. PSV
    pressure support ventilation
  32. mechanical ventilation
    a respirator or ventilator breathes for the patient; SIMV, PEEP, PSV modalities used in mechanical ventilation
  33. Endotracheal intubation
    placement of a tube through the nose or mouth, through the pharynx and laryngx, into the trachea to establish an airway; used with mechanical ventilation
  34. alveol/o
    alveolus (air sac)
  35. bronch/o, bronchi/o
    bronchus (airway)
  36. bronchiol/o
    bronchiole (little airway)
  37. capn/o, carb/o
    carbon dioxide
  38. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  39. lob/o
    lobe (a portion)
  40. nas/o, rhin/o
    nose
  41. or/o
    mouth
  42. ox/o
    oxygen
  43. palat/o
    palate
  44. pharyngo\/o
    pharynx (throat)
  45. phren/o
    diaphram (also mind)
  46. pleur/o
    pleura (lining of lungs)
  47. pneum/o, pneumon/o
    air or lung
  48. pulmon/o
    lung
  49. sinus/o
    sinus (cavity)
  50. spir/o, -pnea
    breathing
  51. thorac/o, pector/o, steth/o
    chest
  52. tonsill/o
    tonsil
  53. trache/o
    trachea (windpipe)
  54. uvul/o
    uvula
  55. nose
    structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
  56. sinuses
    air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
  57. palate
    roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
  58. hard palate
    bony anterior (front) portion of the palate
  59. soft palate
    muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
  60. pharynx
    throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and for air to the larynx
  61. nasopharynx
    part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
  62. oropharynx
    central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
  63. laryngopharynx
    lower part of the pharynx, just below the oropharyngeal opening into the laynx and esophagus
  64. tonsils
    oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
  65. adenoid
    lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
  66. uvula
    small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate; named for its grape-like shap
  67. larynx
    voice box; passageway for air moving from the pharynx to the trachea; contains the vocal cords
  68. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the laynx
  69. epiglottis
    a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
  70. trachea
    windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi
  71. bronchial tree
    branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
  72. right bronchus and left bronchus
    two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
  73. bronchioles
    progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
  74. alveoli
    thin-walled, microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
  75. lungs
    two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphram and rib cage; responsible for respiration
  76. lobes
    subdivisions of the lung, with two on the left and three on the right
  77. pleura
    membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
  78. pleural cavity
    potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
  79. diaphram
    muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and that moves upward and downward to aid in respiration
  80. mediastinum
    partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and that encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus gland
  81. mucous membranes
    thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
  82. cilia
    hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move mucus cell secretions upward
  83. parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that perform respiration
  84. eupnea
    normal breathing
  85. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  86. tachypnea
    fast breathing
  87. hypopnea
    shallow breathing
  88. hyperpnea
    deep breathing
  89. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  90. apnea
    inability to breathe
  91. orthopnea
    ability to breathe only in an upright position
  92. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and, sometimes, in rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
  93. crackles (rales)
    popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air enters diseased airways and alveoli; occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
  94. wheezes (ronchi)
    high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
  95. stridor
    high-pitched, crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
  96. caseous necrosis
    degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
  97. cyanosis
    bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficit amount of oxygen in the blood
  98. dysphonia
    hoarseness
  99. epistaxis
    nosebleed (epi= upon; stazo= to drip)
  100. expectoration
    coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
  101. sputum
    material expelled from the lungs by coughing
  102. hemoptysis
    coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs
  103. hypercapnia (hypocarbia)
    excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  104. hypoventilation
    deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
  105. hypoxemia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  106. hypoxia
    deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
  107. obstructive lung disorder
    condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
  108. restrictive lung disorder
    condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
  109. pulmonary edema
    fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli and, eventually, flooding into the alveoli
  110. pulmonary infiltrate
    density on an xray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
  111. rhinorrhea
    thin watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)
  112. asthma
    panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucus membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
  113. atelectasis
    collapse of lung tissue (alveoli)
  114. bronchiectasis
    abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
  115. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  116. bronchogenic carcinoma
    lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
  117. bronchospasm
    constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle
  118. emphysema
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
  119. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  120. cystic fibrosis
    inherited condition of endocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and damage of lung tissue
  121. laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  122. laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
    inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
  123. laryngospasm
    spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing constriction
  124. nasal polyposis
    presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
  125. pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  126. pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  127. empyema (pyothorax)
    accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
  128. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  129. pleuritis (pleurisy)
    inflammation of the pleura
  130. pneumoconiosis
    chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis)
  131. pneumonia
    inflammation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals
  132. pneumocystis pneumonia
    pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  133. pneumothorax
    air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
  134. pneumohemothorax
    air and blood in the pleural cavity
  135. pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
  136. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
  137. pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
    disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
  138. sinusitis
    inflammation of the sinuses
  139. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring
  140. tonsillitis
    acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
  141. upper respiratory infection (URI)
    infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
  142. arterial blood gas (ABG)
    analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
  143. pH
    abbreviation for the potential of hydrogen; measurement of blood acidity or alkalinity
  144. PaO2
    abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen; measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood
  145. PaCO2
    abbreviation for partial pressure of carbon dioxide; measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
  146. endoscopy
    examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
  147. bronchoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
  148. nasopharyngoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx (throat) to diagnose structural abnormalities, such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
  149. examination methods
    techniques used during physical examination to objectively evaluate the respiratory system
  150. auscultation
    to listen; a physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
  151. percussion
    a physical examination method of tapping the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
  152. lung biopsy (Bx)
    removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic examination
  153. lung scan (ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan)
    a two-part nuclear (radionuclide) scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation (respiration) or perfusion (blood flow) made 1) after radioactive material is injected in the patient's blood, and 2) as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airways; comparison of the two scans indicates whether an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation
  154. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    nonionizing image of the lungs to visualize lung lesions
  155. polysomnography
    recording of various aspects of sleep (ie. eye and muscle movements, respiration, and brain-wave patterns) for diagnosing of sleep disorders
  156. pulmonary function testing (PFT)
    direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capabilities
  157. spirometry
    direct measure of lung volume and capacity
  158. tidal volume (TV or Vt)
    amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
  159. vital capacity (VC)
    amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
  160. peak flow (PF) (peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
    measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
  161. pulse oximetry
    noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
  162. radiology
    x-ray imaging
  163. chest x-ray
    x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph:
  164. PA (posterior-anterior) = from back to front
  165. AP (anterior-posterior) = front to back
  166. lateral = toward the side (eg. left lateral)
  167. computed tomography (CT)
    CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
  168. pulmonary angiography
    x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material
  169. adenoidectomy
    excision of the adenoids
  170. lobectomy
    removal of a lobe of the lung
  171. nasal polypectomy
    removal of a nasal polyp
  172. pneumonectomy
    removal of an entire lung
  173. thoracentesis
    puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)
  174. thoracoplasty
    repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
  175. thoracoscopy
    endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
  176. thoracostomy
    creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube
  177. thoracotomy
    incision into the chest
  178. tonsillectomy
    excision of the palatine tonsils
  179. tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)
    excision of the tonsils and adenoids
  180. tracheostomy
    creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
  181. tracheotomy
    incision into the trachea
  182. cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR)
    method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital body organs when breathing and the heart have stopped
  183. continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
    use of a device with a mask that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages; commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
  184. endotracheal intubation
    passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs (eg. oxygen, anesthetics, or air)
  185. incentive spirometry
    a common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and hold and inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
  186. mechanical ventilation
    mechanical breathing using a ventilator
  187. antibiotic
    a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
  188. anticoagulant
    a drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels (Eg. heparin)
  189. antihistamine
    a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
  190. histamine
    a compound in the body that is released by injured cells during allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
  191. bronchodilator
    a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
  192. expectorant
    a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing

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