AP Psyc Chapter 9 vocab

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  1. Memory
    • human capacity to register, retain, and remember information.
    • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
  2. Flashbulb memory
    • A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
    • General memory of an event.
  3. Encoding
    • Process of getting INFO IN to the memory system.
    • Giving meaning.
    • First stage of information processing.
    • Typing a document.
  4. Storage
    • Process of RETAINING encoded information over time.
    • Second stage of information processing.
    • Save the document in hard drive.
  5. Retrieval
    • The process of getting INFO OUT of memory storage.
    • Third stage of information processing.
    • Read the document from hard drive.
  6. Sensory Memory
    • The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
    • Keyboard
    • Stage 1 of memory processing
  7. Short-term Memory
    • Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten.
    • Ex: seven digits of a phone number while dialing
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Stage 2 of memory processing
  8. Long-term Memory
    • The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. 
    • Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
    • Hard Drive
    • Stage 3 of memory processing
  9. Working Memory
    • a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
    • Cache
  10. Automatic Processing
    • Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
    • Space
    • Time
    • Frequency
    • Learned information, like word meanings.
    • Allows parallel processing (a.k.a. multitasking)
  11. Effortful Processing
    • Encoding that requires attention and conscious affort.
    • Learning vocab
  12. Rehearsal
    • The conscious repetition of information
    • To maintain it in consciousness (maintain rehearsal), or
    • To encode it for storage (elaborate rehearsal).
  13. Spacing effect
    The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice.
  14. Serial position effect
    Recall best the last and first items in a list.
  15. Visual encoding
    The encoding of picture images.
  16. Acoustic encoding
    • The encoding of sound
    • Especially the sound of words
  17. Semantic encoding
    • The encoding of meaning
    • Includes the meaning of words
  18. Imagery
    • Mental pictures
    • A powerful aid to effortful processing
    • Especially when combined with semantic encoding
  19. Mnemonics
    • Memory aids
    • Especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational decives
  20. Chunking
    • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
    • Often occurs automatically.
    • Ex: phone number
  21. Iconic Memory
    • A momentary sensory memory of visual stimult
    • A photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
  22. Echoic Memory
    • A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
    • If attention is elsewhere. sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
  23. Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
    • An increase in a synapse's firing potential after bried, rapid stimulation. 
    • Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
  24. Amnesia
    The lost of memory
  25. Implicit Memory
    Retention independent of conscious recollection.
  26. Explicit Memory
    • Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
    • a.k.a. declarative memory
  27. Hippocampus
    A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
  28. Recall
    • A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
    • As on a fill-in-the-blank test
  29. Recognition
    • A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned 
    • As on a multiple-choice test
  30. Relearning
    A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
  31. Priming
    • The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
    • Ask a friend two rapid-fire questions
  32. Deja vu
    • That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before."
    • Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
  33. Mood-congruent Memory
    The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
  34. Proactive interference
    The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
  35. Retroactive interference
    The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info.
  36. Repression
    In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings. and memories.
  37. Misinformation effect
    Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
  38. Source amnesia
    • Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
    • A.k.a. source misattribution 
    • Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
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AP Psyc Chapter 9 vocab
2012-12-11 03:07:43
AP Psychology memory vocab

last updated: 12/10/2012
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