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- human capacity to register, retain, and remember information.
- The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
- A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
- General memory of an event.
- Process of getting INFO IN to the memory system.
- Giving meaning.
- First stage of information processing.
- Typing a document.
- Process of RETAINING encoded information over time.
- Second stage of information processing.
- Save the document in hard drive.
- The process of getting INFO OUT of memory storage.
- Third stage of information processing.
- Read the document from hard drive.
- The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
- Stage 1 of memory processing
- Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten.
- Ex: seven digits of a phone number while dialing
- Random Access Memory (RAM)
- Stage 2 of memory processing
- The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
- Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
- Hard Drive
- Stage 3 of memory processing
- a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
- Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
- Learned information, like word meanings.
- Allows parallel processing (a.k.a. multitasking)
- Encoding that requires attention and conscious affort.
- Learning vocab
- The conscious repetition of information
- To maintain it in consciousness (maintain rehearsal), or
- To encode it for storage (elaborate rehearsal).
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect
Recall best the last and first items in a list.
The encoding of picture images.
- The encoding of sound
- Especially the sound of words
- The encoding of meaning
- Includes the meaning of words
- Mental pictures
- A powerful aid to effortful processing
- Especially when combined with semantic encoding
- Memory aids
- Especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational decives
- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
- Often occurs automatically.
- Ex: phone number
- A momentary sensory memory of visual stimult
- A photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
- A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
- If attention is elsewhere. sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
- An increase in a synapse's firing potential after bried, rapid stimulation.
- Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
The lost of memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection.
- Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
- a.k.a. declarative memory
A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
- A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
- As on a fill-in-the-blank test
- A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
- As on a multiple-choice test
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
- Ask a friend two rapid-fire questions
- That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before."
- Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info.
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings. and memories.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
- Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
- A.k.a. source misattribution
- Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.