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- ERA was written by Alice Paul in 1923. Presently, ERA is still not law. NWP brought to Congress every year. A
- proposed amendment to the US Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and went to the state
- legislatures for ratification. The ERA failed to receive ratifications before deadline. Phyllis Schlafly mobilized conservatives to oppose ERA. Failed for organizational reasons plus anti-ERA portrayed the ERA as undermining traditional values.
Rosie the Riveter
An idea of women who worked in factories during WWII whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers in the military. Rosie the Riveter is commonly used as a symbol of feminism and women’s economic power. Upon the end of war men would return to work and women were forced to return to their domestic sphere. For a brief moment women had financial independence and a sense of being breadwinner and proved themselves capable.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
Was a political party created in 1964 during Civil Rights movement. MFDP was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from SNCC to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only US Democratic Party. The MFDP used Freedom Summer as an attempt to try and register as many African-American voters as possible since Mississippi had historically excluded most blacks from voting. The MFDP would later refuse the two seats offered by the committee. Because blacks were denied voting in 1963 in the Mississippi primary election, 80,000 people cast freedom ballots”
Sex and Caste: a Kind of Memo
written in 1965 by Mary King Casey Hayden became influential piece in feminism. Based on insights and experiences within the civil rights movement. It was sent to 40 women in the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the National Student Movement, the Student Peace Union, and SNCC. A call to action, the paper incorporated the philosophy that personal relationships have political components. It discussed gender as similar to the Hindu caste system, women and the problems of work, and women and personal relations with men, among other topics. Published in Liberation magazine of the War Resisters League (1966), the paper is seen as one of the salient documents of the second-wave women’s movement.
Miss America, 1968
- Rise of feminism and civil rights movement, pageant became target of protests and its audience began to fade. 400 women from New York Radical Women protested the event on Atlantic City boardwalk by crowning a live sheep Miss America. Distributed publicity materials titled, “No More Miss America!” Women were hurt
- by beauty competition declaring that the most important thing about a women is how she looks by parading women around like cattle to show off their physical
- attributes. These contests also divided women while men were happy to see women competing to see who was sexier – keeping women in their place. Women felt
- inferior they could not live up to Miss America beauty standards. This protest highlighted a new feminist movement in the US.
- conducted by the United States Senate Judiciary Committee to investigate Anita Hill’s allegation of prior sexual harassment by Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas. This symbolized a public referendum on sexual harassment and other gender inequalities in late
- twentieth-century America. Have been widely credited with increasing public awareness about gender discrimination and motivating female voters during the
- 1992 congressional elections. Hill’s charges were leaked to the press days before the Senate’s final vote. Responding to demands from feminist organizations and seven female Democratic members of the House of
- Representatives the Senate delayed the vote. Although Thomas won, Anita Hill is seen as the mother of a new wave of awareness of gender discrimination. Led to
- unprecedented 29 women being elected the subsequent congressional elections.
- idea of radical feminist project starts in NY and
- moves to Chicago 11,000 illegal abortions between 1969-73. Medical doctors training women on how to perform abortions. Women did not have legal full right
- of body, and Jane offered actual abortion and counseling. Jane developed elaborate mechanisms to maintain secrecy and confidentiality while also
- providing follow-up support. To gain greater control over the process and ensure women’s health and safety, they ultimately learned to administer the abortions themselves. Created safe underground network.
Griswold v Connecticut
1964 case where Griswold (Executive Director of Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut) for giving information, instruction, and other medical advice to married couples, were convicted . Supreme Court ruled that the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. It allowed women to openly discuss contraceptives and enabled people to control reproducing. Significant because it allowed for married couple the legal rights to discuss birth control methods and associating sex with procreation.
Sex and the Single Girl
- Written by Helen Gurley Brown in 1962. A guide to working single women to learn to enjoy being single. Torpedoes myth that a girl must be married to enjoy a satisfying life” Tells women where to meet men: WORK. Says women do not need beauty to win men. It’s not about how you look it’s about how you have fun and be confident. Taught women to become
- financially independent and experience sexual relationships before or without marriage.
Womens Politcal Council (WPC)
formed in 1946 in Montgomery, AL was part of Civil Rights Movement. Boycotted bus systems. Blacks had been arrested before for refusing to give up their seats but finally when Rosa Parks they felt was an ideal representative of a good citizen. Priod, Claudette Colvin had been arrested, however she was 14 and pregnant and did not want to represent her.