GLY

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lilymue
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188633
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GLY
Updated:
2012-12-10 22:44:51
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GLY
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GLY
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  1. Mesozoic turtles
    • -12"
    • -Shells not solid
    • -Shell on belly
  2. Mesozoic crocodiles 
    • -First were small
    • -Terrestrial carnivors
    • -Aquatic niche after parasuichids
    • -Large size in later mesozoic (50')
  3. Ichthyosaurs
    • -Dolphin line
    • -50'
    • -Tail for propulsion
    • -Teeth and large eyes
    • -Eats fish and cephalopods
    • -Stiff spine
    • -Live birth
  4. Sauropterygians (Nothosaurs)
    • -Limbs for propulsion
    • -Ate fish, molluscs, snails, used gastroliths
    • -Solid rib cage
    • -Live birth
  5. Sauropterygians (Placodants)
    • -Scooped up clams and crushed them
    • -laid eggs
    • -No twisting
  6. Mosasaurs
    • -Tail for propulsion 
    • -Ate fish, cephalopods
    • -Body twisted, not a fast swimmer
    • -Live birth?
  7. Pterosaurs
    • -wing membrane supported by very long 4th 
    • -Skeleton light weight
    • -Few inches to up to 60' wing span
    • -Ate fish, insects, dinosaurs
  8. Pterasaurs Controversies
    • -Where did the wing membrane attach to limbs
    • -How did they get into air
    • -How did they land
  9. Triassic, Jurassic plants
    -Gymnosperms (cone bearing)
  10. 3 main groups of gymnosperms
    • -Conifers
    • -Cyads
    • -Ginkgoes
  11. Wind pollenation requires
    -Requires right wind conditions, lots of pollen, & lots of members of the same species living close together
  12. Wind pollenation advantages
    • -Wide pollen dispersal
    • -Lack of insect damage
  13. Wind pollenation disadvantages
    -Lots of wasted pollen
  14. Animal vectors (pollen distribution) requirements
    • -attractant (oder, color)
    • -Reward (pollen) 
    • -Way to transfer pollen between plants
  15. Animal vectors (pollen distribution) Advantages
    • -More effecient
    • -less pollen waste
  16. Animal vectors (pollen distribution) Disadvantages
    • -Won't spread as far/fast
    • -Insect damage to the plant
    • -codependant
  17. Seed dispersal (wind) Requirements
    • -Light weight seeds
    • -Wings
    • -Right wind conditions
    • -Large quantity of seeds
  18. Seed dispersal (wind) Advantages
    -Less damage from herbavors
  19. Seed dispersal (Wind) disadvantages
    • -Might end up in area that's not good for growth
    • -Only works in certain environments
    • -wasted seeds
    • -light weight- little food for embryo
  20. Seed dispersal (animals) requirements
    • -Attract animal that can carry seed (in fur, feather, or digestive tract)
    • -fruit/nuts/barbs
  21. Seed dispersal (animals) advantages
    • -Deposited with fertilizer 
    • -Less waste
    • -More food for embryo
  22. Seed dispersal (animals) disadvantages
    • -seeds can be digested
    • -damage from herbivores
  23. why are angiosperms dominant over gymnosperms?
    They grow faster, so it's easier to repopulate land
  24. Anapsids
    • -No holes
    • -Primative condition (early reptiles)
  25. Diapsids
    • -2 holes
    • -Dinosaurs and relatives
  26. Synapsids
    • -1 hole
    • -mammals and ancestors
  27. pelycosaurs
    • -Differentiated teeth
    • -Include sail back reptiles
  28. Therapsids "Mammal like reptiles"
    • -Synapsids that evolved from pelycasaurs, became common in permian in cool climates
    • -some thermo regulation
    • -differentiated teeth
    • -less sprawling
  29. Cynodonts
    • -group of therapsids thought to be mammal ancestors (triassic period
    • -Evolved to small sizes
    • -Burrowing, nocternal, large brain
    • -hair, fur
  30. Morganucodonts
    • -earliest mammalia forms 
    • -large brain
  31. Castorocauda
    hair impressions
  32. Volaticotherium
    -Gliding mammal unrelated to any other group
  33. Monotremes
    • -Most primitive living mammals
    • -Egg layers
    • -Thermoregulate,but at a lower temp (90)
    • -Share genes with reptiles
  34. What causes extinctions
    Occurs when environmental change is either too rapid or too drastic to adapt or migrate
  35. 5 major mass extinctions during craterous
    • -Dinosaurs
    • -pterosaurs
    • -marine reptiles
  36. Impact theory
    • -acid rain- affected occanchemistry
    • -instant heating
    • -dust thrown into atmosphere blocked sunlight (photosynthesis, climate change
    • -tsunami
    • -wild fires
  37. Impact theory evidence
    • -Iridium enriched layer at the k-t boundary in italy
    • -represents dust layer thrown up upon impact
    • -later found world wide
    • -soot at kt boundary-evidence of wildfires
    • -shocked quartz
    • -crater
    • -tsunami deposits
  38. Massive volcanism theory
    • -Acid rain
    • -Wildfires
    • -tsunamies
  39. Massive volcanism theory evidence
    • -Iridum-from deep earth
    • -soot
    • -shocked quartz
    • -glass
    • -crater
    • -evidence of massive volcanism in indian at end of cretaceous
  40. Fern spike
    • -Ferns=disaster species
    • -First plants to recolonize an area after disaster
    • -fern spike suggests a catastrophe
  41. Guild
    Animals categorized into guilds based on diet, size, habitat
  42. Condylarths
    • Generalized ungulates (hooved mammals)
    • -Herbivores
    • -few omni/carnivores
  43. Eocene
    • -Origins of many modern groups
    • -Origin of whales and other aquatic relatives
    • -evolved from terrestrial ancestor
  44. Eocene water evidence
    • -ambulecetus and other early whales- 4 limbs and mobility on land
    • -dolphins with hind limbs
    • -fossil early whale with fetus-orientation indicates birth on land
  45. Eocene air
    -Flying mammals originated in eocene 52 MA at incests, no echolocation
  46. Eocene land
    • -Rodents and rabits, primates, elephants, horses
    • -crocs and flightless birds
  47. Changes since Eocene
    • -Climate/oceanography changes; growth of ice sheets, 1st on antarctic + then in arctic
    • -spread of woodlands and grasslands replacing forests
  48. Response of mammals to Eocene changes
    • -extinction of archaic mammals
    • -expansion of ungulates in grassland
  49. Primate diversification
    • -gripping hands
    • -eyes directed forward
    • -larger relative brain size
    • -flatter face
    • -less specialized teeth & skeleton
    • -slow development, parental care, social structure
    • -arboreal lifestyle
  50. Earliest primate fossil
    -Plesidapid, similar to rodants
  51. Prosimians
    • -lemurs
    • -eocene-adapids
  52. Anthropoids
    • -Monkeys, apes and humans
    • -likely ancestor of old world primates
  53. Proconsul
    -Arboreal apes, 80lbs, fruit/leaves diet
  54. sivapithecids
    • -broadly distributed
    • -ancestorial to orangutans
  55. Difference between humans and great apes
    • -Smaller teeth
    • -pelvis shape
    • -More distinct brow bone
    • -limb proportion
    • -upright posture
    • -furanum magnum
    • -ribcage
    • -shape of jaw
    • -humans have bigger brains
  56. When did human characteristics develop
    -Humans and chimps seperated about 6MA
  57. Ardipithecus
    • -Climbed on limbs but could walk upright
    • -sexes similar in size
    • -4', 110lbs
  58. Australopithecines
    • -Gracile (smaller)
    • -Robust
    • -Lucy
    • -Human like lower body
    • -Ape like upper body
    • -Walked upright 
  59. Homo habilis
    -Associated with stone tools but not first tool maker
  60. Homo erectus
    • -Spread to asia
    • -more advanced tools
    • -used fire
    • -Foot structure same as homo sapian
  61. Hobbit
    Homo floresiensis
  62. Humans vs neanderthals
    • -Sturdier bodies and larger brains than homo sapians
    • -burried dead in a way that suggests religion
    • -attruistic, cannibalistic
  63. Process of human evolution
    • -shift to grassland
    • -favored bipedalism & larger brain 
    • -changes of rate in development

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