Psychology

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AllenH
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188634
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Psychology
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2012-12-11 19:48:13
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Psychology
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Life Span Development Chapters 9-19
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  1. Concrete operational stage
  2. Happens during middle child hood. The ability to think logically about the world)
  3. Decentration:
    Thinking that takes multiple variables into account. “A ball of clay that was rolled in a sausage shape is wider than it was before.”
  4. Reversibility:
     The clay sausage can be made back into a ball of clay.”
  5. Inductive logic
     know from experience that if I run down the stairs, chances are I may fall.
  6. Class inclusion
    “bananas come from fruit, fruit is food”
  7. Processing efficiency
     “I can use my short term memory well.”
  8. Automaticity
    “I can remember things without using my short term memory.”
  9. Executive processes
  10.  “actually using strategies to remember.”
  11.   Memory strategies
    MORES

    1)    Mnemonic: Find a phrase that has meaning using the first letter of each word to be memorized. “Every Good Boy Does Fine.”

    2)    Organization: Grouping, “All of a type”

    3)    Rehearsal: Repetition

    4)    Elaboration: Finding a shared meaning

    5)    Systematic Searching: “Reviewing all the information mentally to remember something.”
  12.   Emotional intelligence:
  13. ·         Recognizing your own emotions,
    • ·         Managing you’re own , emotion
    • ·         Recognizing others, emotionManaging others emotion
  14. Learning disability
    Normal intelligence, difficulty mastering specific skills
  15. Parent training important in ADHD:
       Parent training is important, how to structure and manage their life. Structure the day and time how to recognize when they are doing bad or good and de-escalation. Hyper active: do what the y want and the impulsive inattentive type: can’t focus
  16.  Industry vs. Inferiority
  17. During this stage children develop a sense of their own competence through achievement.
     
  18.  Big 5 personality theory
    OCEAN

    • 1.      Openness try new things
    • 2.      *Conscientiousness  show up for work , stay in school
    • 3.      Extraversion You feel alive when your with people
    • 4.      *Agreeableness always have a complaint
    • 5.      Neuroticism people who worry to much
  19. 1.      Openness try new things
    • 2.      *Conscientiousness  show up for work , stay in school
    • 3.      Extraversion You feel alive when your with people
    • 4.      *Agreeableness always have a complaint
    • 5.      Neuroticism people who worry to much
    •  
  20.    Reciprocal determination
  21. Bandura’s Model: How personal, behavioral and environmental factors interact to influence personality development
  22. Self –efficacy
    “the amount you believe in yourself or what you can do.”
  23. Relational aggression
    when you try to damage another person’s self –esteem or peer relationships , by excluding , gossiping, or  mean facial expressions
  24. Popular, rejected and neglected
  25.  child may be attractive and different from peers, causing rejection or neglect ion
  26. Withdrawn/rejected:
    kids realize that they are disliked by their peers and give up
  27.  Aggressive/rejected
    •  
    •    kids are disruptive and bossy and still feel that they are liked by their peers
    •  
  28.  
    Media influences (Bobo Doll Studies)Albert Bandura
  29. demonstrated the effects of televised violence on children behavior. In these studies children were found to imitate adult’s violent treatment on an inflatable clown that was depicted on the film.
  30.   Prefrontal Cortex
  31. Matures rapidly during adolescence and contributes to advances in executive processing.
  32.   Formal Operational Stage
  33. The fourth of Piaget’s stages, during which adolescents learn to reason logically about abstract conceptions
  34.    Systematic problem solving
  35. The process of finding a solution to a problem by testing single factors
  36.   Hypothetical Deductive reasoning
    The ability to derive conclusions from hypothetical premises
  37.     “David Elkind”
    •  
    • hypothesized that another common manifestation of hypothetical –deductive reasoning 
  38. Personal fable
  39. ·         The belief that the events of ones life are controlled by a mentally constructed autobiography. “A teenage girl may say, “I don’t see my self getting pregnant when asked if she is on the pill. (A story that a teenager makes up to justify their impulses.)
  40. Imaginary audience
    an internalized set of behavioral standards usually derived form a teenager’s peer group. (Believe that everyone else is constantly judging you and you have to respond to that audience.) Everyone wears short skirts
  41.   Task vs. Ability Goals
  42. Task goals are based on a desire for self improvement
    Ability goals are based on a desire to be superior to others.
  43. Identity vs. role confusion
    Erickson’s theory, the stage during which adolescents attain a sense of who they are.
  44. Identify crisis
  45. ·         Erickson’s term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arise when an adolescent sense of self becomes “unglued” so that a new, more mature sense of self can be achieved.
  46. Achievement
  47. ·         The person has been through a crisis and has reached a commitment to ideological, occupational, or other goals.
  48. Moratorium
    A crisis is in progress, but no commitment has been made yet.
  49. Foreclosure:
    The person has made a commitment without having gone through a crisis. No reassessment of old position has been made. Instead, the young person has simply accepted a parentally or culturally defined commitment
  50. Identity diffusion
  51. ·         The young person is not in the midst of a crisis (although there may have been one in the past) and has not made a commitment. Diffusion may thus represent an early stage in the process (before) or a failure to reach a commitment after a crisis.
     
  52. Gender role identity
    gender-related aspects of the psychological
  53. Ethnic identity
    a sense of belonging to an ethnic group
  54. Unexamined
     negative stereotypes
  55. Ethnic identity Search
    comparing ones own ethnic indentify to others
  56. Achievement:
  57. 1.      Adapting ways of solving conflict between the dominant cultures. Some by creating two identities, displaying one in front of the other.
  58. Level 1: Pre-conventional stage
    • Stage 1 Punishment and Obedience Orientation 
    • Stage 2 Individualism, Instrumental purpose, and exchange
  59. Level 2: Conventional stage
    • Stage 3 Mutual Interpersonal expectations, relationships,and interpersonal conformity                
    • Stage 4  Social System and conscience                                                                                        
  60. Level 3: Post-conventional stage
  61. ·         5 Social Contract or utility and individual rights                                                         Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principles
  62. Role-taking
    The ability to look at a situation from another person’s perspective
  63. Empathy:
    The ability to identify with ones emotions
  64. Primary aging:
    Age related physical change that have a biological basis and are universally shared and inevitable. ( Gray hair, wrinkles)  senescence
  65. Secondary aging
      Age related changes that are due to environmental influences, poor health habits or disease, ( I am aging faster due to my disease)
  66. Limbic System
  67. ·         The part of the brain that regulates emotional responses
           Gives us drive
  68. Gradual Decline
  69. ·         The brain begins to loose volume in early adult hood. Loss of speed and firing rate of the nerves. Loss of hearing, eye sight, reproductive system, skin and hair.
  70. Locus of control
    A set of beliefs about the causes of events
  71. External Locus
  72. ·         Believe that other people control or uncontrollable forces such as luck control their future.
  73. Internal Locus
     Believe that they have some control over what happens to them high self efficacy
  74. Optimism
    Internal Locus
  75. Pessimism:
    External locus
  76.    4Ds Mental illness
  77. 1.      Distress
    • 2.      Dysfunction
    • 3.      Danger
    • 4.      Deviance something that makes you odd or rare
  78. 1.      Distress
    • 2.      Dysfunction
    • 3.      Danger
    • 4.      Deviance something that makes you odd or rare
  79. Post formal thought
      Types of thought that are associated with a hypothesized fifth stage of cognitive development. Think it depends
  80.  Crystallized intelligence
  81. ·         Knowledge and judgment acquired through education and experienceContinues to increase. Things you know to be true or false
  82. Fluid intelligence
    The aspect of intelligence that reflects fundamental biological processes and does not depend on specific experiences. Decreases. memorizing
  83. Intimacy vs. isolation (Erickson)
  84. ·         The young adult must find a life partner. The capacity to engage in a supportive affectionate relationship. (Some choose partners some go solo.)
  85. Love (Sternberg) Theory postulates three components of love
  86. 1.      Intimacy: promotes closeness and connectedness,  
    • 2.      Passion: Longing for union and sexual union
    • 3.      Commitment: partner is generally committed to the relationship for a long period of time  Commitment-decision
    •  Intimacy - sharing
    • Passion-Bio/Emotional
  87.   4 Horseman
  88. 1.      Criticism: you focus on the person, terms that were a judgment on the. (you’re so lazy)
    • 2.      Contempt: say things essentially label the person as completely bad. (lots of name calling)
    • 3.      Stonewalling: You ignore the person as much as you can to avoid fight. (Completely ignore out of spite.)
    • 4.      Defensiveness:
  89. Social Clock
  90. the ages at which adults are expected to achieve specific milestones. (Some expect that you should have your education by the age of 28 at the latest.)
  91.  Family Life Cycle Stages
  92. 1.      Marriage
    • 2.      Preschool children
    • 3.      Adolescent children
    • 4.      Last child leaves home
  93. Climactric:
    No longer fertile
  94.  Type A Personality
  95. ·         constantly comparing themselves to others, always wanting to win. Scheduled their lives tightly, timed themselves in routine activities, and often tried to do tasks much faster each time. Frequent conflicts with co workers and family. Since of urgency and aggressiveness or hostility:
  96. Type B Personality
  97.  Less hurried laid back, less competitive and less hostile.
     
  98. Type D Personality
  99.        
    Exhibit chronic pattern of emotional distress combined with the tendency to suppress negative emotions.
  100.  Selective optimization
  101. As you get older you start to recognize weakness, you find ways to compensate your weaknesses
    (Using a planner for memory loss.)
  102.  Divergent vs. convergent thinking
  103. When you think out of the box, or just normally.
  104.   Generativity vs. Stagnation (Erickson)
  105. Around 40-50ish less selfish and start thinking of giving back. Helping others or they don’t care about others and are the opposite.
  106.  Multigenerational caregiver
  107. Middle aged adults, who provide assistance to their parents and adult children at the same time,
  108.   Compassionate relationships
  109. Relationships in which grandparents have frequent contact and warm interactions with grand children.
  110. Selection Optimization with Compensation
  111. ·         The process of balancing the gains and losses associated with aging. (The idea that, as the body ages resources such as physical agility and working memory capacity decrease. In order to manage the demands of competing tasks, aging adults select one to which they devote most or all of the resources. Moreover, adults optimize the skills that they believe can be improved by exercising them as much as possible.)
  112.  Gerontology
  113. The Scientific study of aging
  114.   Four main changes in brain
  115. 1.      Reduction of brain weight
    • 2.      Loss of grey matter
    • 3.      Decline of dendrites, and slower synaptic speed
  116. Synaptic plasticity
  117. The redundancy in the nervous system that ensures that it is nearly always possible for a nerve impulse to move from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another type of cell
  118. Hayflick limit
    Genetically programmed time limit to which each species is theoretically proposed to be subject after which cells no longer have any capacity to replicate themselves accurately
  119. Telomere
    A string of repetitive DNA at the tip of each chromosome in the body that appears to serve as a kind of timekeeping mechanism
  120.  Plaques
    When Neurofibers in the brain tangle and appear to clog connections between neurons
  121. Disengagement theory
     The theory that it is normal and healthy for older adults to scale down their social lives and to separate themselves from others to a certain degree
  122.   Shrinkage of life space
    as people age they interact with fewer and fewer others and fill fewer and fewer roles
  123. Increased individuality:
    In the roles of relationships that remain the older individual is much less governed by strict rules or expectations
  124. Acceptance of changes
    The  healthy older adult actively disengages from roles and relationships turning increasingly inward and away from interactions with others

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