Revolutions

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Author:
Arkwend
ID:
188643
Filename:
Revolutions
Updated:
2012-12-11 01:06:30
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Russian Chinese Mexican Revolutions World History
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Description:
A study guide based off of comparing the Russian, Mexican, and Chinese revolutions to Karl Marxs theory of class struggle being the drive of the world.
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  1. Bloody Sunday
    • 1905,
    • Factory workers went on strike for better working conditions at the Czars palace. 500 killed by gvt troops, 1500 gvt workers killed in retaliation. Czar makes Duma, but it has little power.
  2. Czar Nicholas II
    • Last Ruler of the Romanov Dynasty,
    • Generally considered a bad leader, Lost military conflicts, delegated major issue to others, and left town whenever a problem arose.
  3. Rasputin
    A monk who was influencing the Queen when Nicholas II was gone. He was killed by nobles after multiple attempts including poisoning, shooting, beating, suffocating, and finally, drowning in 1916.
  4. Vladimir Lenin
    The leader of the Bolsheviks(Communist Party) in Russia who made major steps to overthrow the Czar, and later institute communism. He became the leader of Russia for awhile, causing the "Red Terror" after turning the Government into a Dictatorship. He died in 1924 after a stroke.
  5. March Revolution
    • March 1917,
    • 200,000 workers protested the Czarist system, and even earned support of some soldiers. Forced the Czar to step down, and the Provisional Government was formed, led by Alexander Kerensky.
  6. Kerensky
    The leader of the Provisional Government, brought down in the fall of 1917, arrested the the Bolshevik Red Guards.
  7. October Revolution
    The movement taken to get rid of the Duma in October 1917 by the Bolshevik Party. Brought in Lenin as the new leader of the Bolshevik Party.
  8. Bolsheviks
    The single party in Russia also know as the communist party.
  9. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    A Treaty between the Central Powers (Germany) and Russia to stop the war between them signed by Lenin.
  10. Russian Civil War
    • 1918 - 1920
    • Reds (communists) Vs. the Whites (Nationalists or Czarists). Leon Trotsky led the Reds, and 10 million died as a result of it. (1.5 mil military, 1 mil in Executions, 5 mil from Starvation, 2.5 mil to Disease)
  11. USSR
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  12. Joseph Stalin
    • *Man of steel*
    • Actual name is Joseph Dzhugashvili. He was a poor peasant aiming to become a priest. Became lenins #1 supporter and became his mouthpiece in 1922 when he had a stroke. In 1923, lenin recognized his power hunger and wrote a testament to get him out. However, it was suppressed and he became a dictator/ He killed thousands in his purges.
  13. Communism
    An economic system where everyone is equal, and generally has a giant federal gvt (even though there isnt supposed to be one at all!).
  14. Totalitatianism
    A form of government idolizing one person, and any propaganda against that person will be put down, and the author would be arrested or killed. It is the extreme form of dictatorship.
  15. NKVD
    The national secret police stalin formed to suppress the population.
  16. 1984
  17. Five-Year plan
    Plans meant to improve the USSR's economy by setting impossible quotas to increase the output of Steel, coal, oil, and electricity. Includes the agricultural revolution, where collective farms were formed, killing 5 - 10 million people as a direct consequence.
  18. Gulag
    A Work camp where people would be forced to work to near death. Many people did die as well.
  19. The Great Purge
    A campaign of terror meant to secure stalins rule over the communist party and the USSR in general. Killed 8 - 13 million people.
  20. Middle Kingdom
    The concept that china was the "Center of the World", or the most important country in the world.
  21. Opium War
    War FOR drugs, caused when Commisioner Lin began a movement to rid of opium for China. Britain won, and continued to sell opium in China.
  22. Taiping Rebellion
    A revolution intended to rid China of the Qing Dynasty. Led by Hong Xiuquan. Britain sent troops to help the Qing. 20 million died as a result, and the revolt was unsuccessful.
  23. Hong Xiuquan
    The leader of the Taiping Rebellion, was a teacher who was raised by Christian Missionaries. He became a religious leader, and preached communistic ideals, such as redistributing land, and other things unfavorable to the chinese.
  24. Sphere of Influence
    An economic or political foothold a country holds over another that isnt entirely visible or noticed before it is too late.
  25. Boxer Rebellion
    • 1900,
    • Led by the "Boxers" or The Society of Harmonious Fists, Meant to kill the "foreign devils" living in China. Quickly put down by a multi-national force.
  26. Society of Harmonious Fists
    A Kung-Fu practicing group who hated the growing power of foreigners. Called "boxers" because that was the closest thing to what americans saw. Some even believed they were Bullet-Proof!
  27. Dowager Empress Cixi
    The concubine of the Emperor Xianfeng. He died, and her son, Tongzhi took over at the age of 5. She became his regent (teacher and ruler behind the curtain). She continued as "ruler" until she was overthrown at 1912.
  28. Guangxu
    Took power at 4 years old. He began to rule independantly of Cixi in 1898, and was starting reforms to modernize china and other new laws. Cixi held a coup, and he was banished to a island in the forbidden city. Died in 1908 when he was poisoned.
  29. The Forbidden City
    The palace of the rulers of China. Only the rulers, concubines, and unics were allowed inside.
  30. Puyi
    Last emperor of china. Overthrown in 1912.
  31. Sun Yat-sen (Yixian)
    The leader of the Kuomintang. in 1912, he became the president of China. Had a 3 word motto, Nationalism, People's Rights, and People's Livelihood. He turned over the Government to Yuan Shikaiin 1916, who quickly turned China into a Dictatorship.
  32. Yuan Shikai
    Betrayed Sun Yixian, and turned China into a Dictatorship in 1916, initiating the Warlord period.
  33. Kuomintang
    Nationalist Party in China which overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Opposed by the Communist Party.
  34. Warlord Period
    • 1913 - 1921
    • When several Warlords led parts of China. Put down by the united forces of the Chinese Communists and Kuomintang in 1921. Afterwords, in 1925, Chiang kai-shek elected himself as president of China.
  35. Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jeishi)
    The late leader of the Kuomintang, who took over after Sun Yixian died in 1925. He promised equal rights and Democracy to the Chinese, yet, in time his government became corrupt.
  36. Chinese Civil War
    When the Nationalist and Communist forces began to fight a bloody civil war in China from 1927 -1936, then after the japanese invasion was stopped, it reinitiated from 1945 - 1949.
  37. The Long March
    The long journey the Communists took to avoid the Nationalist forces. It lasted from 1924 to 1935, and in that time they marched 6,000 miles!
  38. Mao Zedong
    • 1893 - 1976
    • The late leader of the Chinese Communist Party. Formed a totalitarian gvt like Stalin. Made the infamous "Great Leap Forward",  "The Hundred Flowers" , and "Cultural Revolution" occur.
  39. The Hundred Flowers
    A program to allow the people to speak up against the government. Ended horribly, since everyone who did speak up was quickly apprehended, and the brainwashed to believe Mao was good.
  40. The Great Leap Forward/Great Famine
    An attempt of massive modernization by the Chinese. Mao made large amounts of Mass farms, whic led to the Great Famine. Killing 25 - 40 million people.
  41. The Cultural Revolution/Red Guards
    Mao manipulated students to gain control of the party, caused the formation of mao's "Red Guard". assisted in sending Mao back into a leadership position.
  42. Aztec Empire
    Ruled a small area of America, practiced Human Sacrifice, Revered their kings like a God, Were Polytheistic, etc.
  43. Hernan Cortez
    1519, spanish conquistador who led a small army of spanish soldiers. Took over Tenochitlan and destroyed it around 1521.
  44. Moctezuma
    Last Emperor of the Aztecs.
  45. Battle of Tenochitlan
    When 2,000 spaniards and 10,000 Tlaxcala Indians attacked tenochitlan, and took over the city.
  46. Encomienda System vs. Hacienda System
    Indians assigned to peninsulares VS. Mestizo surfs
  47. Peninslares
    Rich people born in spain. Wealthy and in the gvt.
  48. Creoles
    Full-Blooded spaniards born in America. Wealthy, but no say in gvt.
  49. Mestizos
    Indian/European mixed race, middle class and poor.
  50. The Enlightenment
    When a wave of the philosophy of democracy swept across the world.
  51. Miguel Hidalgo
    Mestizo and Catholic Priest. Started the revolution on September 16th, 1810 with the Grito de Dolores. He was killed in 1811.
  52. Grito de Dolores
    Hidalgos speech calling for revolution which spread across America.
  53. Jose Morelos
    A priest of Indian Background. He took leadership after Hidalgo was killed. Declared independence from spain on September 13th 1813, and announced a democratic govt. However, spain sent reinforcement from 1813 - 1814. He lsot several key battles, and was captured and executed in 1815.
  54. Augustin de Iturbide
    Creole Army Officer. 1820, concerned that democratic reforms would make him loose his status in Mexico. He formed an alliance w/ social classees promising to establish a democracy, when he really made a dictatorship. HOWEVER! He did successfully kick out the spanish, and gave mexico independence.
  55. Mexican - American War
    1846 - 1848 The US went to war to take over what is now Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Eventually led to economic imperialism.
  56. Economic Imperialism
    The taking of land and countries until a firm control of the economy is established.
  57. Roosevelt Corollary
    Declared the US an international police force, so they could use military force to protect US interests.
  58. Porfirio Diaz
    • 1867 - 1911
    • Corrupt and unpopular dictator. Overthrown by MADero and exiled to Paris. His overthrow marked the begining of the Mexican Revolution.
  59. Francisco Madero
    • 1911 - 1913
    • Led a revolution against Diaz calling for democracy. Succeeded, but didnt solve any problems, and was overthrown and killed in 1913 by Huerta
  60. The Ten Tragic Days
    The ten days over which Madero was overthrown and killed.
  61. Emiliano Zapata/Plan de Ayala
    A rebel in the south who focused on land reforms. Made the Plan de Ayala, a series of radical reforms that quickly became popular.
  62. Francisco "Pancho" Villa
    A bandit in the north that helped overthrow Diaz, Huerta, and fought Obregon, Carranza, and the US. He was famous for fighting battles and being video-taped while doing so.
  63. Alvaro Obregon
    Carranza's top general against Villa and Zapata. He overthrew Carranza after he wasn't allowed to run for president. He made peace with Pancho Villa, and ended the Mexican Revolution.

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