Chapter 10 - Human Exceptionality

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Chapter 10 - Human Exceptionality
2012-12-11 00:07:21
Jad Nebalasca

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  1. Vision of Acuity
    Ability to clearly distinguish forms or discriminate among details
  2. Field of Vision
    When gazing straight ahead, a normal eye can see objects within a range of approximately 160-170 degrees
  3. Legally Blind
    • Person whose visual acuity is 20/200 or less after the best possible correction with glasses or contact lenses
    • A person whose vision is restricted to an area of 20 degrees or less
  4. Low Vision
    Uses vision as a primary means of learning, but may supplement visual information with tactile and auditory input
  5. Partially Sighted
    Receives no useful information through the sense of vision and must use tactile and auditory sense for all learning
  6. Totally Blind
    Receives no useful information through the sense of vision and must use tactile and auditory senses for all learning
  7. Functionally Blind
    has so little vision that he/she learns primarily through the auditory and tactile senses; he/she may be able to use their limited vision to supplement information received from the other senses and to assist with certain tasks
  8. Incidental Teaching
    child learns as they move through their environment
  9. Stereotypic behaviors
    engage in repetitive body movements or other behaviors which places them at a great social disadvantage
  10. The causes of refractive errors
    • Myopia - nearsightedness
    • Hyperopia - farsightedness
  11. Structural impairments (cause)
    Cataracts, glaucoma, nystagmus, strabismus
  12. Cortical visual impairments
    damage to parts of brain that interpret visual information
  13. Diabetic Retinopathy
    most common cause of acquired blindness in adults
  14. Glaucoma
    abnormally high pressure within the eye caused by disturbances or blackages of the fluids that normally circulate within the eye
  15. Braille
    • Tactile system of reading and writing composed of raised dots
    • Primary means of literacy for the blind
    • Uses a set of 189 abbreviations called contractions
    • Reading Braille is usually slower than reading print but faster than reading raised letters
  16. Technological Aids for reading print
    • Opticon
    • Kurzwell 1000
    • Hardware/Software that magnifies screen images
    • Speech recognition software
    • Software that converts text files to synthesized speech
  17. Congenital Visual Impairment
    • Present at birth
    • Most cases of visual impairment
    • Has a background of learning through hearing and touch only
  18. Adventitious visual impairment 
    • acquired after birth
    • learned through visual hearing and touch
    • retains a visual memory of things
    • need more emotional support to adjust to vision loss
  19. Braille n Speak
    • battery poweredm pocket sized device for note taking
    • translates braille into syntheszied speech or print
  20. Mount batten Pro Brailler
    • electronic brailler
    • easier to use than mechanical
    • print braille from digital text
  21. Optacon
    • Optical to tactile converter
    • small handheld electronic device that converts regular print readable vibrating from the text
  22. Kurzweil 1000
    computer-based reading system that uses an optical-character-recognition system to scan and read printed or electronic text with synthetic speech
  23. Zoom text
    hardware/software that magnifies screen
  24. Dragon Naturally Speaking
    speech recognition software that magnifies screen
  25. Read out loud, write out loud
    software that converts text files to synthesized speech
  26. Visual Motor Skills:
    • Awareness
    • Fixation
    • Scanning
    • Tracking
    • Discriminating
    • Visual Sequencing 
    • Gaze Shift
  27. Awareness
    Visually sensing the presence of objects or movement
  28. Fixation
    Active alignment of the line of sight in one of both eyes on a stationary object or person
  29. Scanning
    Visually searching for an object or person among a display of visual stimuli
  30. Tracking
    visually following a moving stimuli
  31. Discriminating
    Visually determining differences between and among stimuli
  32. Visual Sequencing
    detecting the sequence in which objects appear, leave or move in the visual field
  33. Gaze Shift
    shifting fixation in space from one location to another
  34. Students with low vision uses three basic approaches:
    • Approach magnification - reduce distance between eye and print
    • Lenses
    • Large print
  35. Orientation
    knowing where you are, where you are going, and how to get there by interpreting information from the environment
  36. Mobility
    moving safely and efficiently from 1 point to another
  37. Expanded curriculum priorities
    • orientation and mobility training
    • lsitening skills
    • functional life skills
  38. Interpersonal skills
    direct instruction on how to deal with strangers, interpret and explain visual impairment to others, make socially acceptable getsures in conversation
  39. SOAPS
    Self Operating Audio Prompting Systems