Tim Jenkins Physio fall Final
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Tim Jenkins Physio fall Final
fall physio final tim jenkins slcc
Endocrine glands secret product into blood and do not have
Which of the following are not types of tissue
What is considered a type of connective tissue
blood, bone, tendon, fat
What is negative feedback?
When a variable moves away from a set point the body moves it back to the set point.
Oxytocin causes an increased contraction which causes an increase of oxycotisin is an example of
An amino acid is a monomer for
Phospholipids are considered
Phosphate is hydrophilic fatty acid is
In 2 glucose molecules from together via dehydration synthesis there is local disaccharide and what other small molecule
Pancreas secretes multiple protein hormones and enzymes. Based only on this information what organelle would you expect to see a great abundance of pancreatic tissue?
Which of the following bases is not considered a premadine
Translation is MRNA being converted into
Transcription is DNA being converted into
DNA being converted into protein is
Which molecule used in the creation of protein recognizing codon recognizes the codon on MRNA and is also physically bound on the amino acids
what is the breakdown of the molecule?
___is the synthesis of a ATP
Which of the following is not affecting an enzymes reaction rate.
all of the above
Glycolysis takes place in the
hich step in the metabolism of glucose takes ACH and produces electron barrier Co2 and ATP?
According to the lecture how many ATP are created in phosphorylation
acid is broken down by beta oxidation into ACH which can then be plugged into the
If you hold your breath as long as you can the result is a small increase in blood co2 concentration. What would be the effect on blood ph and on the h+ concentration?
If co2 increases, h+ increases and ph decreases
If a molecule X moves across a membrane from low concentration of X to a low concentration of X it is
2 solutions are placed in a beaker and separated by a membrane permeable to potassium and you let it set for 5 mins the concentration of h+ and potassium
will be equal
Which is Isotonic to body fluids
In the last 15 years or som there’re have been a handful of reported cases in which people died from drinking too much water. How is this possible?
Too much water taken into the body causes the body to become hypotonic and causes the cell to swell
t-cells with no extracellular signals involved Which of the following protein structure would you expect to find present in both of these cells?
Conexons are part of the gap junctions and results no extracellular signal is gap junctions that allow communication
eyrotheropoetean released from kidneys and travels through the blood and the receptors on the stem cells this would be
endocrine messaging aka hormonal
dopamine epinephrine or norepinephrine is what type of chemical messenger
smooth muscle cell needs to send a signal to another cell it will create a fast nearly immediate response gap junctions:
fast and direct
steroid hormones are lipophilic and will bind to receptors in 2 possible places
nucleus or cytoplasm
activation of g protein coupled receptors can elicit multiple responses in the target cells can do
schwan cells are glial cells in the
Normal neuron in the human body has the resting membrane potential of:
-50 to -55
In terms of all cells hypo-polarized is
Sensory signal goes through an
Motor signals go through
Sodium potassium & ATPase will pump potassium against the concentration gradient against its concentration gradient
into the cell
What is the most influential ion in resting membrane potential
potassium because of the linked channels.
If you artificially add potassium into the extracellular environment this will
have a drastic effect. It will result in a strong hypo-polarization and result in depolarization.
If the following drugs are toxins it causes a single action potential
The volume that would cause hyper polarization in a resting membrane
increasing the potassium leak channels.
Assuming normal physicaloigical conditions movement of sodium down its concentration gradient moves
always out of the cell
Which ion channel is responsible for repolarization
potassium voltage gated
During a relative refractory period what is the main reason a stronger signal is required to enable the cell to reach threshold:
Potassium is more permeable during the relative refractory period than at rest
What is the main determining factor discerning which ion will have the greatest influence:
What ion is most important during the depolarization:
sodium due to the voltage gated channels
Of the following steps of the excitatory synaptic transmission or form earliest to latest:
1.Opening the voltage gated channels binding the ligand 3. action potential on presynaptic neuron.
Signaling the synapse can go in only one direction
What mechanism ensures ACH released from the synaptic cliff
all of the above
IPSP will result in which of the following
opening of the sodium channel
4 Neurons all synapse on the neuron resulting in a Hyperpolarization membrane.
Inhibitory spatial summation.
Which of the following is not considered a part of the autonomic nervous system
When would the sympathetic most likely be activated?
While fighting a bear.
When would the parasympathetic NS most likely be activated:
after a thanksgiving dinner
What would not be the result of parasympathetic NS activation
increased heart rate
Where is the majority of the blood delivered in a parasympathetic response?
Chromatin cells are in the adrenal medulla and release
Albuterol is a drug prescribed to patients who have asthma. What receptor is activated?
Which of the following is a result of beta one alnergic receptor
Beta one is increased heart rate
What type of receptor is located on cell body of post ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic and sympathetic receptors of the of the autonomoic NS:
Which of the following are classified as cholinergic receptor:
nicotinic and muslerinic cholinergic
After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following:
help with severe heart burn
What side effects might they have
(After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following: help with severe heart burn)
increased heart rate
Triggering a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves?
Proteins of thin filament binds to calcium and therefore initiates skeletal muscle contraction.
Troponin responds to calcium
In order for cross bridge cycling to occur the actin myosin complex must be broken by ___
The binding of ATP to Myosin
Sequence of events that links the action potential to change in skeletal muscle course development
the ___ is the voltage sensor that initiates the an increase of cytoplasm calcium in response to an action potential that physically opens the sarcoplasmic reticulum that responds to calcium.
The binding of calcium that targets the skeletal muscle will directly result in ___
Movement of troponin, tropomyosin complex
What is the function of the t tubules?
Conduct action potential to the sarcolemma to the anterior of the muscle extending that action.
In order to allow discrete contract elements to occur calcium to rapidly removed in the sarcoplasmic?
Calcium pumps (Active transport)
What is not a part of the process for skeletal muscles to relax?
Sarcolemma of calcium channels to open and allows eclipse of calcium
As the intensity of exercise increases in muscle switching from oxidative phosphorylation
Anaerobic ATP production resulting in an increased production of lactic acid
Do not action potential and sarcolemma stimulate the opening of voltage gated calcium channels in the plasma membrane to start the plasma reticulum.
Wrong because it gets calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following does not increase the force generated by an individual muscle fiber?
Recruitment of an individual muscle fiber to increase the frequency of the stimulation
Normal of skeletal permeability of muscle lining speed of contraction skeletal muscle fiber is dependent on?
Rate of myosin ATPase
Where are gap junctions commonly found
In the cardiac and smooth muscle
in smooth muscle capcin triggers contraction of ions of what protein?
Calmodulin when bound in smooth muscle activates contraction by activating myosin which makes calcium flow.
(Skeletal muscle it is actin and smooth is myosin)
Which of the following is not associated with cardiac muscle?
Short refectory period
Natural killer cells can effect abnormal cells by the release of
Once in ____ can use the tissue to convert it into a macrophage that attacks invaders by phagocytosis
From a b cell contact with a forging or abnormal antigens it develops into a ___ that releases ___
Plasma cell, antibody
Each antibody can bind?
2 of the same epitope
Vaccines are composed of ____ that stimulate an active immunity to that pathogen are made of
Non-pathogen portion of microorganisms
A natural form of passive immunity evolves the transfer of
Antibodies to an infant through mother’s milk
When blood leaves the heart it first enters the
Blood supply to the heart
Closure of the AV valve occurs when
The pressure inside the ventricle is greater than the inside of the atrium
The ___ carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
The following is the correct conduction
SA, AV, bundle of his, perkunje fibers
An ECG tracing shows a series of normal beats followed by a QRS that occurs significantly earlier than normal without a visible P wave
Premature ventricular depolarization
Which of the following indicates ventricular repolarization
Which of the following equations is correct?
Cardiac output = stroke volume * heart rate
A male patient presents with a BP of 90/60 with 6 beats every 6 seconds?
Diastolic is 60
Pulse pressure is not 60 it is 30 (WRONG)
Systolic pressure is 90
60 beats every 6 0 seconds
In the circulatory system the largest pressure drop occurs across the
Drugs that block angiotensin enzyme (ace) would
Decrease the arterial pressure
Which of the following would cause dilation of global capillaries resulting in increased level blood flow?
CO2 also true with decreased pH
Hormone vasopressin or ADH has 2 main roles
Vasoconstriction and decrease urine
What can cause edema
Hematocrit is a measurement of amount of what component of blood?
Most abundant plasma protein is
What is not accurate in regards to erythrocytes
They do not migrate in to infected regions of tissue
what triggers erythropoietin to release?
Decreased o2 levels AND Erythropoietin is released from the kidneys
What would not increase hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
In healthy epithelial cells carbonic acid is converted into ____ the formation of blood clots
Prostacyclin released from healthy cells and inhibits the formation of blood clots
___ functions primarily as the region of lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs in the
When pressure inside the lungs exceeds the atmospheric pressure air will move
outside of the lungs
contraction of the diaphragm results in
increased in volume of thoracic cavity and decrease in pressure in the lungs
oxygenated blood is found in
pulmonary art and the pulmonary vein and right atrium
hyperventilation will lead to an increase of ___ and ___ in the blood
increased o2 and decrease co2
anemia is defined as
decreased in oxygen carrying capacity in the blood
The presence of bicarbonate ions in the blood has an important direct effect, aside from the transport of CO2, that involves ______. .... to manipulate factors involving cardiac output
something of acid based
from tube to blood
blood to tube :waste products