Tim Jenkins Physio fall Final

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Tim Jenkins Physio fall Final
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2012-12-11 00:57:40
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fall physio final tim jenkins slcc
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  1. Endocrine glands secret product into blood and do not have
    ducts
  2. Which of the following are not types of tissue
    glandular
  3. What is considered a type of connective tissue
    blood, bone, tendon, fat
  4. What is negative feedback?
    When a variable moves away from a set point the body moves it back to the set point.
  5. Oxytocin causes an increased contraction which causes an increase of oxycotisin  is an example of
    Positive feedback
  6. An amino acid is a monomer for
    proteins
  7. Phospholipids are considered
    amphipathic
  8. Phosphate is hydrophilic fatty acid is
    hydrophobic
  9. In 2 glucose molecules from together via dehydration synthesis there is local disaccharide and what other small molecule
    h2o
  10. Pancreas secretes multiple protein hormones and enzymes.  Based only on this information what organelle would you expect to see a great abundance of pancreatic tissue?
    Rough ER
  11. Which of the following bases is not considered a premadine
    Adpremadine
  12. Translation is MRNA being converted into
    a protein
  13. Transcription is DNA being converted into
    RNA
  14. DNA being converted into protein is
    protein synthesis
  15. Which molecule used in the creation of protein recognizing codon recognizes the codon on MRNA and is also physically bound on the amino acids
    TRNA
  16. what is the breakdown of the molecule?
    Catabolism
  17. ___is the synthesis of a ATP
    Anabolism
  18. Which of the following is not affecting an enzymes reaction rate.
    all of the above
  19. Glycolysis takes place in the
    cytosol
  20. hich step in the metabolism of glucose takes ACH and produces electron barrier Co2 and ATP?
    Krebs cycle
  21. According to the lecture how many ATP are created in phosphorylation
    34
  22. acid is broken down by beta oxidation into ACH which can then be plugged into the
    krebs cycle
  23. If you hold your breath as long as you can the result is a small increase in blood co2 concentration.  What would be the effect on blood ph and on the h+ concentration? 
    If co2 increases,  h+ increases and ph decreases
  24. If a molecule X moves across a membrane from low concentration of X to a low concentration of X it is
    Active Transport
  25. 2 solutions are placed in a beaker and separated by a membrane permeable to potassium and you let it set for 5 mins the concentration of h+ and potassium
    will be equal
  26. Which is Isotonic to body fluids
    9% nacl
  27. In the last 15 years or som there’re have been a handful of reported cases in which people died from drinking too much water.  How is this possible?
    Too much water taken into the body causes the body to become hypotonic and causes the cell to swell
  28. Pinocytosis
    drinking
  29. Phagocytosis
    eating
  30. t-cells with no extracellular signals involved Which of the following protein structure would you expect to find present in both of these cells?
    Conexons are part of the gap junctions and results no extracellular signal is gap junctions that allow communication
  31. eyrotheropoetean released from kidneys and travels through the blood and the receptors on the stem cells this would be
    endocrine messaging aka hormonal
  32. dopamine epinephrine or norepinephrine is what type of chemical messenger
    neurotransmitter
  33. smooth muscle cell needs to send a signal to another cell it will create a fast nearly immediate response gap junctions:
    fast and direct
  34. steroid hormones are lipophilic and will bind to receptors in 2 possible places
    nucleus or cytoplasm
  35. activation of g protein coupled receptors can elicit multiple responses in the target cells can do
    everything
  36. schwan cells are glial cells in the
    PNS
  37. Normal neuron in the human body has the resting membrane potential of:
    -70
  38. Threshold is:
    -50 to -55
  39. In terms of all cells hypo-polarized is
    -60
  40. Sensory signal goes through an
    AFFERENT NEURON
  41. Motor signals go through
    EFFERENT NEURON
  42. Sodium potassium & ATPase will pump potassium against the concentration gradient against its concentration gradient
    into the cell
  43. What is the most influential ion in resting membrane potential
    potassium because of the linked channels.
  44. If you artificially add potassium into the extracellular environment this will
    have a drastic effect.  It will result in a strong hypo-polarization and result in depolarization.
  45. If the following drugs are toxins it causes a single action potential
    TTS
  46. The volume that would cause hyper polarization in a resting membrane
    increasing the potassium leak channels. 
  47. Assuming normal physicaloigical conditions movement of sodium down its concentration gradient moves
    always out of the cell
  48. Which ion channel is responsible for repolarization
    potassium voltage gated
  49. During a relative refractory period what is the main reason a stronger signal is required to enable the cell to reach threshold:
    Potassium is more permeable during the relative refractory period than at rest
  50. What is the main determining factor discerning which ion will have the greatest influence:
    Permeability
  51. What ion is most important during the depolarization:
    sodium due to the voltage gated channels
  52. Of the following steps of the excitatory synaptic transmission or form earliest to latest:
    1.Opening the voltage gated channels binding the ligand   3. action potential on presynaptic neuron.
  53. Signaling the synapse can go in only one direction
    true
  54. What mechanism ensures ACH released from the synaptic cliff
    all of the above
  55. IPSP will result in which of the following
    opening of the sodium channel
  56. 4 Neurons all synapse on the neuron resulting in a Hyperpolarization membrane.
    Inhibitory spatial summation.
  57. Which of the following is not considered a part of the autonomic nervous system
    Central
  58. When would the sympathetic most likely be activated?
    While fighting a bear.
  59. When would the parasympathetic  NS most likely be activated:
    after a thanksgiving dinner
  60. What would not be the result of parasympathetic NS activation
    increased heart rate
  61. Where is the majority of the blood delivered in a parasympathetic response?
    Brain only
  62. Chromatin cells are in the adrenal medulla and release
    Epinephrine
  63. Albuterol is a drug prescribed to patients who have asthma.  What receptor is activated?
    beta two
  64. Which of the following is a result of beta one alnergic receptor
    Beta one is increased heart rate
  65. What type of receptor is located on cell body of post ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic and sympathetic receptors of the of the autonomoic NS:    
    receptors
  66. Which of the following are classified as cholinergic receptor:
    nicotinic and muslerinic cholinergic
  67. After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following:
    help with severe heart burn
  68. What side effects might they have
    (After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following: help with severe heart burn)
    increased heart rate
  69. Triggering a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves?
    The actin
  70. Proteins of thin filament binds to calcium and therefore initiates skeletal muscle contraction.
    Troponin responds to calcium
  71. In order for cross bridge cycling to occur the actin myosin complex must be broken by ___
    The binding of ATP to Myosin
  72. Sequence of events that links the action potential to change in skeletal muscle course development
    Excitation contraction
  73. the ___ is the voltage sensor that initiates the an increase of cytoplasm calcium in response to an action potential that physically opens the sarcoplasmic reticulum that responds to calcium.
    EHP receptor
  74. The binding of calcium that targets the skeletal muscle will directly result in ___
    Movement of troponin, tropomyosin complex
  75. What is the function of the t tubules?
    Conduct action potential to the sarcolemma to the anterior of the muscle extending that action.
  76. In order to allow discrete contract elements to occur calcium to rapidly removed in the sarcoplasmic?
    Calcium pumps (Active transport)
  77. What is not a part of the process for skeletal muscles to relax?
    Sarcolemma of calcium channels to open and allows eclipse of calcium
  78. As the intensity of exercise increases in muscle switching from oxidative phosphorylation
    Anaerobic ATP production resulting in an increased production of lactic acid
  79. Muscle contractions:
    Do not action potential and sarcolemma stimulate the opening of voltage gated calcium channels in the plasma membrane to start the plasma reticulum.
    • FALSE
    • Wrong because it gets calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  80. Which of the following does not increase the force generated by an individual muscle fiber?
    Recruitment of an individual muscle fiber to increase the frequency of the stimulation
  81. Normal of skeletal permeability of muscle lining speed of contraction skeletal muscle fiber is dependent on?
    Rate of myosin ATPase
  82. Where are gap junctions commonly found
    In the cardiac and smooth muscle
  83. in smooth muscle capcin triggers contraction of ions of what protein?
    • Calmodulin when bound in smooth muscle activates contraction by activating myosin which makes calcium flow.
    • (Skeletal muscle it is actin and smooth is myosin)
  84. Which of the following is not associated with cardiac muscle?
    Short refectory period
  85. Natural killer cells can effect abnormal cells by the release of
    Perforins
  86. Once in ____ can use the tissue to convert it into a macrophage that attacks invaders by phagocytosis
    Monocytes
  87. From a b cell contact with a forging or abnormal antigens it develops into a ___ that releases ___
    Plasma cell, antibody
  88. Each antibody can bind?
    2 of the same epitope
  89. Vaccines are composed of ____ that stimulate an active immunity to that pathogen are made of
    Non-pathogen portion of microorganisms
  90. A natural form of passive immunity evolves the transfer of
    Antibodies to an infant through mother’s milk
  91. When blood leaves the heart it first enters the
    Arteries
  92. Blood supply to the heart 
    Coronary artery
  93. Closure of the AV valve occurs when
    The pressure inside the ventricle is greater than the inside of the atrium
  94. The ___ carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
    Pulmonary artery
  95. The following is the correct conduction
    SA, AV, bundle of his, perkunje fibers
  96. An ECG tracing shows a series of normal beats followed by a QRS that occurs significantly earlier than normal without a visible P wave
    Premature ventricular depolarization
  97. Which of the following indicates ventricular repolarization
    P-wave
  98. Which of the following equations is correct?
    Cardiac output  = stroke volume * heart rate
  99. A male patient presents with a BP of 90/60 with 6 beats every 6 seconds?
    • Diastolic is 60
    • Pulse pressure is not 60 it is 30 (WRONG)
    • Systolic pressure is 90
    • 60 beats every 6 0 seconds
  100. In the circulatory system the largest pressure drop occurs across the
    Arterial
  101. Drugs that block angiotensin enzyme (ace) would
    Decrease the arterial pressure
  102. Which of the following would cause dilation of global capillaries resulting in increased level blood flow?
    CO2 also true with decreased pH
  103. Hormone vasopressin or ADH has 2 main roles
    Vasoconstriction and decrease urine
  104. What can cause edema
    Liver damage
  105. Hematocrit is a measurement of amount of what component of blood?
    Erythrocytes
  106. Most abundant plasma protein is
    Albumin
  107. What is not accurate in regards to erythrocytes
    They do not migrate in to infected regions of tissue
  108. what triggers erythropoietin to release?
    Decreased o2 levels AND Erythropoietin is released from the kidneys
  109. What would not increase hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
    Increased pH
  110. In healthy epithelial cells carbonic acid is converted into ____ the formation of blood clots
    Prostacyclin released from healthy cells and inhibits the formation of blood clots
  111. ___ functions primarily as the region of lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs in the
    Eboulius
  112. When pressure inside the lungs exceeds the atmospheric pressure air will move
    outside of the lungs
  113. contraction of the diaphragm results in
    increased in volume of thoracic cavity and decrease in pressure in the lungs
  114. oxygenated blood is found in
    pulmonary  art and the pulmonary vein and right atrium
  115. hyperventilation will lead to an increase of ___ and ___ in the blood
    increased o2 and decrease co2
  116. anemia is defined as
    decreased in oxygen carrying capacity in the blood
  117. The presence of bicarbonate ions in the blood has an important direct effect, aside from the transport of CO2, that involves ______. .... to manipulate factors involving cardiac output
    something of acid based
  118. Absorption
    from tube to blood
  119. Secretion
    blood to tube :waste products

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