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What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete?
- regulatory hormones
What hormones does the pituitary gland secrete?
What hormones do the thymus secrete?
What hormones do the thyroid gland secrete?
What hormones does the Pineal Gland secrete?
What hormones does the Saprarena gland secrete?
What hormones does the Parathyroid gland secrete?
What hormones does the heart secrete?
What hormones do the kidneys secrete?
What hormones does adipose tissue secrete?
What hormones do the testes secrete?
What hormones do the ovaries secrete?
What hormones doe the pancreatic islets secrete?
What are peptide hormones?
- largest group
- in pituitary gland
What secretes steroid hormones?
- reproductive organs
- suprarenal glands
Where are steroid hormones derived from?
What is the function of eicosanoids?
- coordinate cellular activity
- affect enzymatic processes
What are target cells?
- peripheral cells
- respond to presenceof hormones
What regulates endocrine reflexes?
What are the triggers of endocrine reflexes?
- humoral stimuli
- neural stimuli
- hormonal stimuli
What are humoral stimuli?
changes in composition of extracellular fluid
What are hormonal stimuli?
the arrival or removal of specific hormones
What are neural stimuli?
arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions
What is significant about positive feedback?
- the only process that must be rushed to complete
- the secretion of a hormone triggers an effect that further stimulates hormone releases
What is ADH?
anti- diuretic hormone
What is APH?
What are the methods that the hypothalamus uses to regulate activities of neurons?
- secrete regulatory hormones
- release ADH and oxytocin into pituitary
- ANS center
What is an example of positive feedback?
Oxytocin during labor triggers uterine contractions, which cause more secretions of oxytocin
What do regulatory hormones do?
control activities of endocrine cells in the pituitary gland
What are the classes of regulating hormones?
- releasing hormones
- inhibiting hormones
What does ADH respond to?
- increase in electrolytes in blood
- decrease in blood volume
- decrease in BP
What is the primary function of ADH?
- decrease amnt of water lost in kidneys
- constrict blood vessels to increase BP
What does oxytocin do?
stimulates contraction of uterine muscles, myoepithelial cells, and the prostate gland
What is TSH?
thyroid stimulating hormone
What type of cells release thyroid hormone?
What is ACTH?
What is the function of TSH?
release steroid hormones by suprarenal gland
What type of cells release ACTH?
Where do hormones leave from?
Where do hormones enter?
what does a hormone d once it gets to its target hormone?
causesit to respond?
What are the 4 groups that hormones are organized into?
- amino acid derivatives
- peptide hormones
- steroid hormones
Describe amino acid deriviatives.
- protein based
- structurally similar to amino acids
What are examples of amino acid derivatives?
- thyroid hormones
- suprarenal medulla hormones
Describe peptide hormones.
- chains of amino acids
- in pituitary
What are examples of peptide hormones?
all hormones in pituitary gland
Where are examples of steroid hormones?
- reproductive hormones
- suprarenal cortex horones
Where are eicosanoids derived from?
What is arachidonic acid?
a fatty acid of cell membranes
What are examples of eicosanoids?
What does prostaglandin do?
What do leukotrienes do?
blood cells production
What does thromboxane do?
What does the ANS center of the hypothalamus do?
controls the suprarenal medulla
The pituitary gland is the ______, which is...?
- an extension of the nervous system and gland tissue
Where is the pituitary gland?
- attched to hypothalamus via infundibulum
- sits in sella turcica
What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?
Describe the adenohypophysis?
- anterior lobe of pituitary gland
- releases 9 peptide hormones
Describe the neurohypophysis?
- posterior lobe of pituitary gland
- releases 2 peptide hromones
Fnctions of neurohypophysis:
- release ADH
- release oxytocin
What does the release of ADH do?
- targets nephrons of kidneys
- causes kidneys to retain water
- constricts blood vessels
What does the release of oxytocin do?
- targets smooth muscles of uterus (so it contarcts)
- contractile cells of mammary glands (myoepithelial cells secrete milk)
- contarcts smooth muscles of prostate gland
What is the adenohypophysis controlled by?
secretions of regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus
What is the hypophyseal portal system? Where is it?
within infundibulum is a plexus of fenestrated capillaries
How do regulatory hormones get to the adenohypophysis?
- leave through the hypothalamus
- pass through through portal vessles