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2012-12-11 03:19:53

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  1. biological evolution
    the change in the properties of groups of organisms over the course of generations
  2. do individual organisms evolve?
  3. linnaeus
    established the framework of modern classification; classified plants and animals
  4. uniformatarianism
    hutton and lyell; the same processes that operated in the past as in the present, and that the observations of many systems should therefore be explained by causes that we can now observe
  5. lamarck's theory
    over time, species originate by spontaneous generation, and each evolves up the scale of organization, establishing a chain of being that ranged from newly originated simple forms of life to older, more complex forms
  6. inheritance of acquired characteristics
    the belief that such alteration, acquired during an individual's lifetime, are inherited
  7. darwin's five theories
    • descent with modification
    • common descent
    • gradualism
    • populational change
    • natural selection
  8. descent with modification
    all species have descended without interruption from one or a few original forms of life
  9. common descent
    all species have diverged from common ancestors and all of life can be portrayed as one great family tree
  10. gradualism
    the differences between even radically different organisms have evolved incrementally, by small steps through intermediate forms
  11. populational change
    evolution occurs by changes in the proportions of individuals within a population that have different inherited characterstics
  12. natural selection
    if individuals of a species with superior features survive and reproduce more successfully than individuals with inferior features, and if these differences were inherited, the average character of the species would be altered
  13. neo-lamarckism
    use and disuse are the primary drivers of evolution. individual organisms change in response to needs
  14. orthogenesis
    species evolve in a predetermined direction
  15. mutationism
    mutation might cause instantaneous origin of new species and novel traits
  16. twelve fundamentals of evolution
    • phenotype vs genotype
    • acquired characterstics are not inherited
    • heredity based on genes retain their identity as they pass through the generations
    • mutation creates stable alternative alleles
    • populational process
    • mutation itself has little effect on populations
    • natural selection can account for both slight and great variations
    • natural selection can alter populations beyond the original range of variation
    • mutations can accumulate
    • differences between species can evolve in small steps
    • all organisms are related by common ancestry
    • population processes can explain the differences between higher taxa
  17. five main parts of evolution by natural selection
    • individuals with different trait values have diffrrent probabilities of survival and/or reproduction
    • offspring tend to resemble parents
    • next generation will ahve a different set of trait values
    • new variation arises each generation
    • continues selection results in changes beyond the original range of variation
  18. natural selection is not
    • literally selection
    • purposeful
    • forward-looking
    • the only cause of evolution
    • opposed to cooperation or altruism
  19. constraints of n.s.
    • available variation
    • antagonistic pleiotropy
    • trade-offs
    • gene flow
    • physical constraints
    • arms races
    • lack of foresight
  20. adaptation
    a characteristic that enhances the survival or reproduction of organisms that bear it
  21. fitness
    the average per capita rate of increase in offspring
  22. three main parts of fitness
    • the probability of survival to reproducrive age
    • the average number of offspring produces via female function
    • the average number of offspring produced via male function
  23. sexual selection
    variation in the number of offspring produced as a consequence of competition for mates
  24. selfish genes
    transmitted at a higher rate than the rest of an individual's genome and are detrimental to the organism
  25. altruistm
    a feature that reduces the fitness of an individual that bears it for the benefit of the population or species
  26. preadaptation
    a feature that fortuitously serves a new function (feathers for flight)
  27. exaptation
    preadaptations that have actually been co-opted to serve a new function (swim bladder)
  28. homology
    most features of an organism are modified from pre-existing features
  29. mosaic evolution
    evolution of different characters at different rates within a lineage
  30. heterochrony
    evol. change in relative timing or rate of different developmental processes
  31. allometry
    different parts have different growth rates
  32. convergent evolution
    similar features are formed by different developmental pathway
  33. parallel evolution
    similar developmental modifications that evolved independently
  34. evolutionary reversal
    a return from a derived charact state to an ancestral state
  35. the five causes of evolution
    • mutation
    • genetic drift
    • gene flow
    • selection
    • recombination
  36. red queen
    each species has to run as fast as possible just to stay in the same place because its competitors, predators, and parasites also continue to evolve
  37. semelparous
    females reproduce once
  38. iteroparous
    females reproduce more than once
  39. four cost of sex
    • meiosis
    • recombination
    • matin
    • producing males
  40. intrasexual selection
    leads to evolution of characters involved in winning in combat with other males
  41. intersexual selection
    leads to evolution of characters important in attracting females
  42. six life history traits
    • size at birth
    • growth rate
    • age and size at maturity
    • fecundity
    • mortality rates
    • lifespan
  43. high adult mortality
    invest early in reproduction and age rapidly
  44. low adult mortality
    spread reproductive effort over time and age slowly
  45. coevolution
    an evol change in one species may evoke a reciprocal change in another species
  46. specific coevol
    two species evolve in response to one another
  47. diffuse evol
    several species are involved and their effects are not independent
  48. escape and radiate coevol
    a species evolves a defense against enemies, and is thereby enabled to proliferate into a diverse class
  49. mutualism
    interactions between species that benefit individuals of both species
  50. symbiotic mutualism
    individuals are intimately associated for much of their lifetimes
  51. five assumptions of hardy-weinberg
    • mating is random
    • population infinite
    • no gene flow
    • no mutation
    • no selection
  52. genetic drift
    random fluctuations in the frequencies of alleles
  53. four macroevolution patterns
    • novelty
    • adaptive radiation
    • stasis and change
    • trends and progress
  54. biological species concept
    species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
  55. phylogenetic species concept
    species must be groups of organisms that are diagnosible from other such units and share a pattern of ancestry and descent
  56. genealogical species concept
    species are the most exclusive groups of organisms that are all descended from a common ancestral organism
  57. inclusive fitness
    the fitness of a gene as measured by its effect on the survival or reproduction of both the organism bearing it and the organism's relatives
  58. kin selection
    alleles differ in their rate of propagation by influencing the impact of their bearers on the reproductive success of individuals who carry the same alleles by common descent
  59. hamilton's rule
    an altruistic trait can increase in frequency if the benefit received by the donor's relatives exceeds the cost of the trait to the donor's fitness (rb > c)
  60. reciprocal altruism
    can be advantageous for an individual to help another if the recipient will provide reciprocal aid in the future
  61. group selection
    an individual sacrifices so the group thrives