Chapter Eight

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DesLee26
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188697
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Chapter Eight
Updated:
2012-12-11 10:42:22
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Chemistry Final
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  1. In Hess's law, what can be done with the reactants and the products?
    added and subtracted
  2. When you reverse an equation in Hess' technique, what must happen?
    change the sign
  3. Standard heats of formation:
    the enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states
  4. True or False:
    The standard heats of formation are per one mole.
    • False:
    • the standard heats of formation are per whatever mole we were given in the reaction (the limiting reactant)
  5. What is the standard heat of formation for any element in its standard staet?
    zero
  6. In Hess' law and standard heats of formation, the reactants are
    a. positive
    b. negative
    b. negative
  7. In Hess' law and standard heats of formation, the products are:
    a. positive
    b. negative
    a. positive
  8. How can we figure out the standard heat of formation?
    Products - reactants
  9. How can bond dissociation energy be used?
    to approximate the value for standard heats of formation
  10. How do we solve for H with bond dissociation?
    Reactants- products
  11. in bond dissociation the reactants are:
    a. positve
    b. negative
    b. positive
  12. In bond dissociation, the reactants are:
    a. positive
    b. negative
    b. negative
  13. What is the second law of thermodynamics:
    reactions proceed in the direction that increases the entropy (S) of the system plus surroundings
  14. Spontaneous process
    one that proceeds on its own without any continous external influence
  15. Nonspontaneous process
    takes place only in the presence of a continuous external influence
  16. The measure of molecular disorder in a system is called the system's __; this is __. What are the units?
    • entropy (S)
    • J/K
  17. Positive value of dS indicates __.
    increased disorder
  18. Negative value of dS indicates __.
    decreased disorder
  19. In terms of both enthalpy and entropy, explain a spontaneous process?
    • -dH (decrease in enthalpy)
    • +dS (increase in entropy)
  20. In terms of both enthalpy and entropy, explain a nonspontaneous process?
    • +dH (increase in enthalpy)
    • -dS (decrease in entropy)
  21. Which is favored: spontaneous or nonspontaneous?
    spontaneous
  22. What is Gibb's Free Energy Change?
    weighs the relative contributions of enthalpy and entrophy to the overall spontaneity of a process
  23. When is G spontaneous?
    when negative
  24. When is dG nonspontaneous?
    when positive
  25. When is dG at equilibrium?
    when 0
  26. What does q symbolize?
    quantity of heat transferred
  27. The higher the heat capacity (C), what?
    the greater the amount of heat needed to produce a given temperature change

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