vocab words

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vocab words
2012-12-18 13:48:26

final review
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  1. looking at social life in a scientific systematic way, rather than depending on common-sense explanations
    sociological perspective
  2. an explanation of the realtionships among a particular phenomena
  3. negative consequence, an element for the stability of the social system
  4. competition over scarce resources is the basis of social conflict
    conflict theory
  5. founder of sociology as a distinct objection
    Auguste Comte
  6. capitalist- own the materials and methods used to produce goods and services
  7. workers- provide the labor
  8. an attempt to understand the meaning individuals attach to their actions
  9. general set of assumptions about the nature of things
    theoretical perspectives
  10. forces in society that promote competition and change
    conflict perspective
  11. view society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system
    functionalist perspective
  12. unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society
    latent function
  13. intended and recognized consequence of some element of society
    manifest function
  14. the study of how people interact with one another and in social situations
  15. physical objects, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by human groups
  16. combo of objects and rules for using culture objects
  17. objects that represent something
  18. shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
  19. folkways that have great moral significance attached to them
  20. culuter of all interrelated traits
    cultural complex
  21. individual tool, act, or belife that is realted to a particular situation or need
    cultural trait
  22. combo of a number of cultural complexes intro an interrelated whole
    cultural pattern
  23. belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture
    cultural relativism
  24. group of interdependent people who have organzied in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity
  25. group that rejects the major norms, values, and practices of the larger society and has new set of patterns
    counter culture
  26. groups in society that share calues and norms that aren't shared by the entire population
  27. spreading of culture traits from one society to another
  28. the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior
  29. process by which a norm becomes part of an individual's personality causing conformity
  30. rewards for a particular kind of behavior such as good grades
    positive sanciton
  31. punishment to enforce conformity such as prison
    negative sanction
  32. a reward/punishment given by a formal organziation such as a school
    formal sanction
  33. spontaneous expresion of approval or disapproval give by an individual or group such as a teacher
    informal sanction
  34. extreeme selfcenteredness
  35. what are the sources of cultural change
    values, belifes, technology, population diffusion, physical environment, wars/conquest
  36. the long term conscious effort to promote or precent social change such as gay rights movement
    social movement
  37. when cultural traits take a long time to change
    cultural lag
  38. a 3 person group that the takes own life as its own, independent of any member
  39. a status assigned according to qualities beyond a persons control
  40. a status acquired through own direct efforts
    achieved status
  41. a network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction
    social structure
  42. exchange of good/service
  43. a status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determines their social identity
    master status
  44. when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill role expectations of another status
    role conflict
  45. idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return
  46. what are the types of accommodations
    compromise, truce, mediation, arbitration
  47. example of primary group
  48. example of secondary group
  49. primary group composes of individuals of equal age
    peer group
  50. setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are subject to tight control
    total institution
  51. who was responsible for the tabula rosa
  52. what states everyone is born without a personality which results from social expierences
    tabula rosa
  53. what are the agents of socialization
    family, peers, school, mass media, resocialization
  54. interactive process through which people learn basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns
  55. sum of the total behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values
  56. unchanging, biologically inherited behavior patterns
  57. parents, siblings, relatives and others who have direct influence on our socialization
    significant others
  58. interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine others to view us
    looking glass self
  59. part of ourself that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society
  60. transmissino of genetic characteristics from parents to kids
  61. children born have different perspectives
    birth order
  62. internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society
    generalized other
  63. period between normal onset of puberty and beginning of adulthood
  64. tendency of individuals to marry people who have social characteristics similiar to their own
  65. learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future
    anticipatory socialization
  66. responsibility for arranging dates fell to the man- contact, suggest time and place, select activity, and pay
    traditional dating expectations
  67. adolescents are mature enough to think about themselves and about what they want out of life
    search for self
  68. what are the predicators of teen sex
    family income levels, martial status of parents, relgious participation
  69. any act that is labeled as by those in authority and punishable by government
  70. frequency and closeness of assoications a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
    differential association
  71. examples of violent crime
    murder, rape, assault, robbery
  72. what are the four functions that are served by corrections
    retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, social protection
  73. what are the factors that police consider before arresting someone
    seriousness of crime, wishes of victim, attitudes of suspects
  74. sanctions used to punish criminals
  75. behavior that violates significant social norms
  76. type of crimes
    violent, agaisnt property, victimless, white-collared, organized
  77. the theory that views deviance as a natural outgrowth of norms, values, and structure of society
    starin theory
  78. theory that states deviance is a learned behavior
    cultural transmission theory
  79. repeated criminal behavior
  80. mark of social disgrace that sets the devaint apart from the rest of society
  81. theory that states deviance is a natural occurence but focuses on why people confrom
    control theory
  82. the value of everything the person owns
  83. ability to control the behavior of others with or without consent
  84. respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy an individual receives from other members of society
  85. grouping of people with similiar leves of wealth, power, and prestige
    social class
  86. characteristics of people in poverty
    • age
    • sex
    • ethnicity
  87. scarse resources and social rewards are distributed on the basis of ascribed statuses
    caste system
  88. movement between social classes
    vertical mobility
  89. movement within social class
    horizontal mobility
  90. minimum income
    poverty level
  91. individuals determine their own social rank
    subjective method
  92. individuals rank other members of society social rank
    reputational method
  93. blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common identity
  94. discrimination upheld by the law
    legal discrimination
  95. the maintaining of control over a group of people through force
  96. segregation based on informal norms
    de facto segregation
  97. unsupported generalization about a category of people
  98. discrimination that is the outgrowth of the structure of society
    institutionalized discrimination
  99. over simplified, exaggerated, unfavorable generalizations about a group of people
  100. set of cultural characterisitcs that distinguishes one group from another group
  101. a group of people who are singled out and unequally treated
    minority group
  102. what are the characteristics of a minority group
    physcial/cultural characteristics, victims of unequal treatment, membership in ascribed status, strong bonds, practice endogamy
  103. policy allows each group within a society to keep its unique cultural identity
    cultural pluralism
  104. denial of equal treatments to individuals based on their group membership
  105. practice of placing blame for one's troubles on an innocent individual or group
  106. prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true
    self-filling prophecy
  107. judging someone based on their race
  108. marriage outside of one's scoial category
  109. policies that physcially seperate a minority group from the dominant group
  110. segregatino
  111. people who share a common cultural background and a common sense of identity
    ethnic group
  112. goal of extermination is the intentional destruction of entire targeted population
  113. crimes committed because of race
    hate crime
  114. category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and whom others see as being a distinct group
  115. what are the traits of drug use
    violence, crime
  116. what are the predicators of teen suicide
    alcohol/drug use, trigger events, age, sex, population density, family
  117. what made drugs illegal for everyone
    harrison narcotics act
  118. what country has the highest teen pregnancy rate
  119. what triggers copy cat suicides
    well publicized suicide
  120. hwo much does teen pregnancy cost the united states annually
    9.1 billion