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2012-12-11 11:29:05

BIO N212
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  1. Most higher brain functions are located in the              
    cerebral cortex
  2. The surface area of the cortex is increased by its foldings or             
  3. The ridges on the brain are known as           
    gyri or gyrus
  4. The grooves on the brain are the           
    sulci(singular: sulcus) or fissures
  5. The                       separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum, and the cerebrum itself is divided into 2 hemispheres by the                        .
    • transverse fissure
    • longitudinal fissure
  6. The right hemisphere deals with the left side of the body, and the lefthemisphere handles the right, an example of what?
    contralateral control
  7. What is the white matter of the cerebrum responsible for?
  8. Between the 2 hemispheres –                      /        – connect similar regions of the two hemispheres – most pass through the                       
    • commissural fibers/tracts
    • corpus callosum
  9. Between the individual parts of one hemisphere –                /        – link perception and memory (close eyesand smell rose – can name it and remember what one looks like)
    association fibers/tracts
  10. With the rest of the brain –                     /         – from cerebrum to lower parts of brain and spinal cord –named for what they connect, for example corticospinaltracts connect cerebral cortexto spinal cord (and brain stem)
    projection fibers/tracts
  11. A large white matter structure between the hemispheres, just below thelongitudinal fissure, is the                    
    corpus callosum
  12. There are also islands of gray matter called                     within the white matter.
    basal nuclei
  13. Each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided by fissures and sulci into 5areas (           ).
  14. One lobe of the brain, the            , is deep, and functions in memory and to link and integrate the other lobes' functions.
  15. The other 4 lobes are on the surface and are named for the cranial bonesthat cover them:
    frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  16. The cerebral cortex is made up of 3 types of areas:                    (muscle control),                      (perception and analysis of sensations, which is an associative function) and                       (establish associations between broad areas of stored information and new input).
    • motor areas
    • sensory areas
    • associative areas
  17. The                    lobe isresponsible for most motor functions.
    posterior frontal
  18.           (                             -control of skeletal muscles (large neurons called pyramidal cells carry out much of this function and extend long axons to the spinal cord)
    primary (somatic) motor cortex
  19.                       - programmed, repetitiousmovements (typing)
    premotor cortex
  20.                       - motor speech (lefthemisphere)
    Broca's area
  21.                                 - voluntary eye movement
    frontal eye field
  22. One particularly important part of the frontal lobe is the                    , which is a major association area.
    prefrontal complex
  23. What is the most complicated part of the cortex, and undergoes much of its development during childhood?
    prefontal complex
  24. Most of the sensory areas are found in the                     .
    parietal lobe
  25.                                 :receives input from the skin, and stretch receptors within the skeletalmuscles, uses this information for                      (know the position of body part without looking) andconscious perception of pain, temperature, vibration, and touch
    primary somatosensory cortex
  26.                           :analyzes what you feel or touch by reference to stored information (don't need to see it) B for example, you can reach in your pocket and identify a paperclip by touch
    somatosensory association area
  27.                      : taste (sensory andassociative)
    gustatory cortex
  28.                     : smell (sensory andassociative)
    olfactory cortex
  29.                                : mainly in left temporal near auditory associative area comprehension of spoken and written language.
    language comprehension area
  30.                   : analysis, sounding out ofnew words (left hemisphere)
    Wernicke's area
  31.                              : lie in the lobe opposite Broca's and Wernicke's areas, responsible for nonverbal, emotional part of language
    affective language areas
  32.                     lies directly behind the eyes.
    Occipital lobe
  33. The                                  is the largest sensory area of the brain.
    primary visual cortex
  34. The                        deals withseveral functions like memory, language, and includes the                                  (handles perception of sensations like full stomach, full bladder, etc).
    • insula lobe
    • visceral association area
  35.                       - emotions - several tracts(white matter) and gray matter of cerebrum
    limbic system
  36.                      – usually in the lefthemisphere – includes Wernicke’s, Broca’s, temporal areas (coordinate writtenand spoken/auditory language), and part of prefrontal that deals with languagecomprehension/analysis
    language area
  37. The            (walls of the 3rdventricle) - sorts and edits sensory input, directs it to appropriate brain region
  38. The            (floor of the 3rd ventricle)- major control center for homeostasis - controls activity of autonomic centers (blood pressure, heart rate, motility ofdigestive tract, respiration, hunger/thirst, biological clock, other visceralactivities) - control of and part of endocrine system
  39. the               (roof of the3rd ventricle) includes the pinealbody or pineal gland - produces melatonin, which is active in the body's biological clock andreproductive functions
  40. What is the posterior brain called?
  41. It coordinates skeletal movements using input from the cerebral motorcortex, brain stem, and sensory receptors in the muscles to produce skeletalmuscle contractions necessary for smooth movement.
  42. Structurally, it also has 2 convoluted hemispheres, and the white matterof the interior forms a striking, branching structure called the "arbor vitae".
  43. The major neurons in the cerebellum are the                  , responsible for most cerebellar output – synapse with inner gray layer (central nuclei).
    Purkinje cells
  44. The                    are important to brain function - many of them serve as relay stations for sensory input
    basal nuclei
  45. The            is an important part of the          system (emotions),as well as memory.
    • amygdala
    • limbic
  46. Within the white matter of the midbrain lies a critical nucleus, the                        .
    substantia nigra
  47. This area is rich in melanin, a precursor of its major product, dopamine.
    substantia nigra
  48. It functions closely with the cerebral basal nuclei.
    substantia nigra
  49. In the white matter of cerebrum is the                    – a group of nuclei that arch over the diencephalon
    corpus striatum
  50. The                    is where many critical homeostatic areas are located; these are not under conscious control.
    brain stem
  51. The                    includes the midbrain, the medulla oblongata and the pons. It is also home to an important brain system, the reticular formation.
    brain stem
  52.                    part of brain stem just above foramen magnum, last part of brain before spinal cord - connection between higher brain centers and the autonomic nuclei controlling heart and respiratory rate, vomiting, blood pressure, etc.
    Medulla oblongata
  53.             - site of substancianigra, also origin of some of the cranial nerves
  54.           - origin of some cranialnerves
  55. Structurally and functionally, the                      is much simpler than the brain.
    spinal cord
  56. The section of the spinal cord where nerves to the arms arise isenlarged (                    ), asis the part serving the legs (                    ).
    • cervical enlargement
    • lumbar enlargement
  57. The                    are where incoming sensory axons synapses with associative neurons, which relay the sensory information to the brain via the ascending tracts in the white matter.
    posterior horns
  58. Sensory axons from the peripheral sensory neurons first synapse just outside the spinal cord in the                  (       )           
    dorsal root (spinal) ganglion
  59.                    = change membrane polarity, fast synaptic communication, stored and released from synaptic vesicles at the ends of axons (axon terminals).
  60.                     = modify synaptic transmission, may increase or decrease sensitivityto a neurotransmitter - change is slower than neurotransmitter’s effect, mayuse secondary messengers (signal transduction pathways); include neuropeptides,hormones, and other messengers (even gases) – may be released by postsynapticto act on presynaptic.
  61.          excites skeletal muscle but inhibits cardiac.
  62.               (              ) is the main/most common      excitatory neurotransmitter of CNS, principle excitatory of brain (75%) – works in learning and memory – excess levels released during prolonged ischemia (stroke, cerebrovascular accident) results in cell death through excess excitability  (excitotoxicity)
    glutamate (glutamic acid)
  63.             – excitatory, main one in spinal cord
    aspartate (aspartic acid)