HISTORY 202

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dylan
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18871
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HISTORY 202
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2010-05-12 15:35:23
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fuckin history. How does it work?
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  1. Sometimes called the "Old Stone age," named for the types of tools used and was societies generally followed the pattern of the pastorl nomads. All prior to 10,000 BC
    Paleolithic period
  2. Occurred in 9000 BC. Men learned to domestcate Animals, and Women to domesticate and harvest plants.
    Agricultural Revolution
  3. In the neolithic period this led to the demise of migration
    Agricultural revolution
  4. What caused fewer people to have to farm in the neolithic period?
    Specialization of labor. Because more people could focus on other specific tasks, fewer were needed to worry about farming.
  5. What led to social stratification in the neolithic period?
    Surplus
  6. Where is Mesopotamia in a modern day context?
    Iraq
  7. What is a nickname for Mesopotamia?
    "Between the rivers"
  8. What were the geographical challenges associated with the early culture of Mesopotamia?
    Little rain, muddy swamps and unpredicatable flooding.
  9. What factors led to the technological revolution in Mesopotamia?
    The need to control the water.
  10. Occurred between 6000 and 3000 BCE in Mesopotamia
    Technological revolution
  11. What was the result of the need to create various projects for controlling the water in Mesopotamia?
    Organizational revolution
  12. Took 10 years to build, was created to get one closer to the almighty and was believed to house deities.
    The Ziggurat of Ur
  13. Was a pastoral nomad in an ancient Mesopotamian legend. Half man and half animal and created a significant problem for many civilized people until they were able to "tame" him
    Enkidu
  14. The first example of a written Epic in world history
    The Epic of Gilgamesh
  15. He corrupts Enkidu in an attempt to control him. Introduces him to sex with a harlot.
    Gilgamesh
  16. Why do Enkidu and Gilgamesh wrestle?
    Enkidu is trying to prevent Gilgamesh from going to bone someone else's wife.
  17. A "Noah" figure for ancient Mesopotamia
    Utnapishtim
  18. Nicknamed the gift of the Nile
    Egypt
  19. Why was Egypt less urban than Mesopotamia?
    Water was more predictable and easier to control and so there was less need to improve on technology to change anything
  20. What is the difference between the Nile rivers and the Tigris/Euhprates rivers?
    The Nile flowed on a regular pattern and deposited silt into the ground.
  21. This is the first period in Egyptian history that goes from 3100-2600 BC.
    The Archaic Period
  22. This is the period from 2660-2160 BC in Ancient Egpyt
    The Old Kingdom
  23. This is the period from 2160-1640 BC in Epgytian history
    Middle Kingdom
  24. This is the period from 1550-1075 BC in Egyptian history
    New Kingdom
  25. He is an Egyptian sun God and it is believed that all of the subsequent pharoahs are his offspring
    Horus
  26. In what ways were Pharoahs percieved as Demi Gods?
    They were believed to the be the Offspring of Horus
  27. Constructed of 2,000,000 limestone blocks, 500 feet tall and covers 13 acres of land
    The Great Period
  28. This God would judge an individual at the end of his or her life according to Egyptian mythology
    Osiris
  29. This cult had a very highly developed concept of judgment and afterlife
    The cult of Osiris
  30. The indigenuos people of India and the banks of the Indus River who had dark skin and are sometimes called Harappans
    Dravidians
  31. A nomadic tribe who arrived in India about 1500 BC and sought to control the Dravidians and ushered in the Vedic age
    Aryans
  32. An ancient society known for using standard weights and measures, currency and possibily even a trade affiliation with Harrapa
    Mohenjo Daro
  33. A society that mysteriously ended
    Harappan
  34. This occurred in 2500 BC and led to the aryans coming down to India
    The indo-european migration
  35. This age occurs from 1500 BC to 500 BC and starts when the Aryans set up shop in India
    The Vedic Age
  36. Why did the Aryans defeat the Harappans/Dravidians?
    Chariot technology
  37. The Aryans called the Dravidians "Dasa." What does this mean?
    Subject people
  38. Why did the Aryans develop the Varna and Caste systems in India?
    They were worried about Aryans interbreeding with the Dravidians
  39. The root meaning of the word "Varna"
    Skin color
  40. the root meaning of the term "caste"
    Heredity
  41. In the caste system, this is the most powerful class or sometimes called the "priest" class.
    Brahmin
  42. In the caste system, this is the warrior class and also the class of the political leaders
    Kshatriya
  43. In the caste system this is the merchant/artisan class
    Vaishyas
  44. This is the common or labor class in the caste system. They make up 95% of the Indian subcontinent
    Shudras
  45. The term that refers to sub-castes or castes within castes
    Jati
  46. From what legend did the Caste system emerge?
    The sacrficice of Purusha. All of his various body parts represent the different body parts that make up the body of India
  47. Why were the vedas developed?
    To detail the correct procedure for sacrifice.
  48. Occurred between 1000 and 700 BC in India
    Kingship rose up
  49. This commentary on the Vedas created a change in the purpose of sacrifice and further empowered the Brahmin class
    Brahmana
  50. How did the brahmanas empower the Brahmins?
    It was believed that their sacrficice literally constrained the Gods to bless the people. It was no longer an act of benevolence and this elevated the position of the Brahmins.
  51. This movement occurred in the late vedic age and led to a backlash against the brahmana movement
    The upanishads
  52. What is the idea that one must conquer the material world with spiritual strength, and to practice self denial
    Ascetism
  53. In what ways did the Upanishads challenge the authority of the Brahmins and their Brahmanas?
    It stressed non-violence, calling their sacrfice into question. It also brought the Dravidian religious notions into play (Brahman, samsara, karma and moksha) which played an effect on the imoprtance of the class system.
  54. How did the Upanishads have a strengthening effect on the social structure of India.
    It solidified the class system because it spread the idea that a person had "what they deserved" in this life, but that everyone would get the opportunity to move up.
  55. Indian concept of nonviolence
    Ahimsa
  56. What does the term "classical" refer to in the subject of empire?
    That of Greek or Roman descent
  57. These empires dominated India from 321 BC to 550 BC
    The Mauryan and Gupta Empires
  58. This man overthrew the rules of Magadha and created the first unified Indian Empire
    Chandragupta Maurya
  59. His government had an advisor, a network of spies and courtesans and he developed a handbook of political statecraft called the Arthashastra
    Chandragupta Maurya
  60. Was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya nad lived from 268-232 BC
    Ashoka Maurya
  61. What happened to the Maryan empire at about 185 BC?
    It began to fragment and disappear
  62. This dynasty was found by Chandragupta
    The Gupta Dynasty
  63. This dynasty established popular Hindu thought within its boundaries as well as long distance trade and wealth
    Gupta Dynasty
  64. What did the expansion of wealth in the Gupta Empire do the to status of the lower classes?
    It increased
  65. These were people reacting to the social changes going on in the Mauryan/Gupta empires and are what modern day readers would call "atheists"
    Charavakas
  66. These people reacted to the social changes of the Mauryan empire and rejected the teaachings of the Brahmins and focused more on renouncement and personal enlightenment (Think of the Jain and the Buddha)
    Ascetics
  67. Lived from 540-468 BC. Was an Ascetic renouncer, A statue known as Gomateshwara has been erected in his honor
    Mahavira
  68. The enlightened teacher, and what Mahavira became
    The Jain
  69. Was part of the Kshatriya class who renounced it all after discovering suffering in the world
    Siddharta Guatama
  70. The path that exists between the path of indulgence and the path of denial (that Siddharta sought)
    The Middle Path
  71. In Buddhist doctrine, "the way" or "the law."
    Dharma
  72. What happened in the Buddhist world in 528 BC
    Monastic orders established. Buddha obtains followers
  73. He supported, converted to and funded Buddhism, largely in part to his guilt in conquering Kalinga
    Ashoka
  74. What changes occurred in popular Buddhist thought from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD?
    The idea of the Buddha divine and the Bodhissatva
  75. This mode of Buddhism is known as the "greater vehicle"
    Mahayana Buddhism
  76. this form of Buddhism is known as the "lesser vehicle"
    Theravada Buddhism
  77. What factors led to the decline of Buddhism in India?
    Monastic isolation, rise of Atheism and Islam
  78. This river gave rise to early Chinese Empires. Sometimes called "China's sorrow" because of its destructive history
    The Yellow River
  79. The Earliest known Chinese Dynasty dating back to 2200 BC
    The Xia Dynasty
  80. An early Chinese Dynasty existed from 1766-1122 BC
    Shang Dynasty
  81. What factor gave rise to most powerful empires in the East?
    Hydraulic States or the ablity to control water
  82. One factor of the Shang Dynasty's power was this process:
    Broze Metallurgy
  83. This metallurgy occurred in 1200 BC during the time of the Shang dynasty
    Bronze
  84. In what ways was Bronze Metallurgy crucial to the shang Dynasty's power?
    It was the basis of tools and weaponry and the state monopolized it.
  85. What form of Leadership did the Shang Dynasty employ?
    A decentralized, Feudal form
  86. This Dynasty existed from 1122-256 BC and Eclipsed the shang rule
    Zhou Dynasty
  87. What lead to the decline of the Zhou dynasty?
    Discovery of Iron and their own decentralized ledership
  88. How did the Zhou dynasty ensure that their overthrow of the Shang could be justified?
    The "Mandate of Heaven"
  89. How did the mandate of heaven solidify the Zhou's power in overthrowing the Shang?
    It presented the idea that it was God given and that "might makes right" was not at work. It was the work of God, and not just any regular Joe could do it.
  90. How did the Zhou rules determine whether or not the Gods were pleased with the current ruler?
    The State of the Yellow River
  91. Zhou literature became the foundation for Chinese literature and a religion to come later
    Confucianism
  92. What helped to Unify China during the Zhou Dynasty?
    Wars...people wanted to find the most effective method for reorganizing society
  93. This leader was heavily influenced by Zhou literature and died in 479 BC. Was not a prophet or holy man...just a scholar teacher and had a desire to be a political advisor
    Confucius
  94. The compilation of Confucius' sayings, created posthumously
    The Analects
  95. The confucian principle that officials should all act for the common good
    Ren
  96. The cnofucian principle that Propriety and deference should be shown to Elders and superiors
    Li
  97. the confucian principle that fillial piety was essential and that Children should respect their parents
    Xiao
  98. The confucian ideal for a perfect leader in society
    Junzi
  99. An optimist and believer in Ren. He created a school of thought based on Confucian principles and lived from 372-289 BC.
    Mencius
  100. A confucian scholar who was a pessimist and believed in the fundamental selfishness of humanity and encouraged rigid discipline and propriety Lived from 298-238 BC
    Xunzi
  101. Founder of Taoist thuoght. Was an advisor to chinese rulers. Renounced society and moved to western China
    Lao-Tzu (Laozi)
  102. What word do Taoists use to criticize Confucianists?
    Activists
  103. The writings of Lao-Tzu
    Tao Te Ching
  104. The natural order of the world according to Lao-Tzu
    Tao
  105. four characteristics of Tao
    Undefinable, cyclical, quiet and dispassionate
  106. Positive inaction or acting without acting. Taoist philosophy
    Wu-wei
  107. Taoists use this to help understand Tao and what it means to understand it
    The Tao of water. Yielding, soft and without ambition
  108. Principle of Tao based on being ready to recieve new ideas and not to develop rigid pre-concieced notions
    "BE THE POT"
  109. Practical and efficient statecraft with little regard for ethics, morality or natural forces
    Legalism
  110. Lived from 280 to 233 BC and synthesized legalist theories into a collection of essays
    Han Feizi
  111. In Legalist doctrine this is the law and foundation for society
    Fa
  112. In legalist doctrine this is the idea of a ruler's methods, tctices and art. (Often rooted in maintaining secrecy)
    Shu
  113. Legalist principle of legitimacy or charisma of a leader
    Shi
  114. According to Legalist docrtine what are the two strengths of any state?
    Agriculture and Military
  115. This period existed in China from 403 to 221 BC
    The warring states period
  116. This ruler united China in 221 BC. He divided China into districts, dismantled regional fortresses and established a unified system of writing. Also known to be a legalist and to have burned all Zhou literature
    Qin Shi Yung
  117. These men were worker on qin Shu Yung's great wall but led a rebellion and to the collapse of the Qin Dynasty
    Chen Shang and Wu Guang
  118. Rose up after the deaths of Cheng Sheng and Wu Guang (the great wall workers) and established the Han Dynasty
    Lu Bang
  119. Known as the "martial emperor" of the Han dynasty and most influential. He built roads and canals, reinstated Confucianism and created an imperial university
    Han Wudi
  120. Major Accomplishments of the Han Dynasty
    Confucian system of education and the explansion in Korea, Vietnam and Central Asia
  121. Han Economic innovations
    Silk textiles and Paper
  122. Known as the socialist emperor. Lived from 6 BC to 23 AD.
    Hang Wang
  123. What did Hang Wang do to deal with the problem of land distribution?
    Confiscated land from the wealthy and redistributed it to the poor.
  124. When the Aryan's settled Persia in 3000 BC, who was there?
    The Babylonians
  125. What advantages did the early barbarians have over the civilized people regarding warfare?
    They were mobile, had nothing to defend, had been trained in cavalry their whole lives
  126. Who established civilizations in Persia in 3000 BC?
    Aryans
  127. This man founded the Achaemenid Empire
    Cyrus the Great
  128. Cyrus the Great is associated with which century?
    The 6th century
  129. The son of Cyrus and notable for conquering Egypt
    Cambyses
  130. Most influential leader in the Achaemenid Empire?
    Darius
  131. What was the beuracratic center and "heart" of Darius' empire?
    Persepolis
  132. Darius divided the empire into administrative districts called
    Satrapies
  133. Each Satrapy in Darius' empire had a leader known as a __________
    Satrap
  134. All of Darius' satraps were from Persia. What was the advantage of this?
    They were loyalists
  135. What policies did darius implement that are similar to those from the leaders of the Qin Empire?
    Standardized currency, writing and language
  136. What ideal did Darius implement in his Empire that helped it run efficiently and to keep people content?
    Cultural tolerance
  137. The son of Darius
    Xerxes
  138. Xerxes abandoned the culturally tolerant ideals of his father and created enemies with surrounding empires...what is this phenomenon?
    Persianization
  139. What led to the downfall of Xerxes empire?
    The people he'd alienated were pissed, they were at war with the Ionian Greeks and Alexander the Great invaded
  140. Leader of the Zoroastrian religion
    Zarathustra
  141. Zarathustra had a vision from God and was given information to spread to the people in what would become zoroastrianism. What was the name of this God?
    Ahura Mazda
  142. The evil counterpart of Ahura Mazda
    Angra Mainyu
  143. The Zoroastrian equivalent of the Vedas or Vedic Hymns
    Gathas
  144. What were the appeals of Zoroastrianism?
    Life of moderation but not asceticism, it filled a spiritual void that the original Persian religion wasn't filling with ritual sacrifice and it was endorsed by king Darius himself.

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